REVIEW OF THE
RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE
FreedomCAR AND
Fuel Partnership

FIRST REPORT

Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 1

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Transportation Research Board

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE FreedomCAR AND Fuel Partnership FIRST REPORT Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 1 Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences Transportation Research Board NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DE-AT01-04IG01153, Task Order No. 2, between the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-09730-4 (Book) International Standard Book Number: 0-309-65277-4 (PDF) Available in limited supply from: Board on Energy and Environmental Systems National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Keck W934 Washington, DC 20001 202-334-3344 Additional copies are available for sale from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth St., N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF THE FREEDOMCAR AND FUEL RESEARCH PROGRAM, PHASE 1 CRAIG MARKS, Chair, NAE,1 Altarum, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan PETER BEARDMORE, NAE, Ford Motor Company (retired), West Bloomfield, Michigan DAVID L. BODDE, Clemson University, South Carolina GLENN A. EISMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York DAVID E. FOSTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison JOHN B. HEYWOOD, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JOHN G. KASSAKIAN, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAROLD H. KUNG, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois JAMES J. MACKENZIE, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MICHAEL P. RAMAGE, NAE, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company (retired), Moorestown, New Jersey VERNON P. ROAN, University of Florida (professor emeritus), Gainesville BERNARD ROBERTSON, NAE, DaimlerChrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan R. RHOADS STEPHENSON, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (retired), Consultant, La Canada, California KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation (retired), Birmingham, Michigan BRIJESH VYAS, Bell Laboratories-Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey Subgroup on Systems Analysis and Simulation BERNARD ROBERTSON, Chair PETER BEARDMORE DAVID BODDE DAVID FOSTER JOHN HEYWOOD CHRISTOPHER MAGEE VERNON ROAN 1   NAE, National Academy of Engineering.

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report Subgroup on Advanced Combustion Engines, Emissions Control, and Hydrocarbon Fuels DAVID FOSTER, Chair JOHN HEYWOOD HAROLD H. KUNG MICHAEL RAMAGE BERNARD ROBERTSON KATHLEEN TAYLOR Subgroup on Electrochemical Energy Storage BRIJESH VYAS, Chair JOHN KASSAKIAN CHRISTOPHER MAGEE Subgroup on Fuel Cells GLENN EISMAN, Chair VERNON P. ROAN KATHLEEN TAYLOR BRIJESH VYAS Subgroup on Electric Propulsion, Electrical Systems, and Power Electronics JOHN KASSAKIAN, Chair BERNARD ROBERTSON Subgroup on Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage KATHLEEN TAYLOR, Chair DAVID L. BODDE JAMES MACKENZIE CHRISTOPHER MAGEE MICHAEL RAMAGE RHOADS STEPHENSON

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report Subgroup on Safety RHOADS STEPHENSON, Chair JOHN HEYWOOD HAROLD KUNG CHRISTOPHER MAGEE Subgroup on Materials PETER BEARDMORE, Chair GLENN EISMAN CHRISTOPHER MAGEE KATHLEEN TAYLOR Project Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES) JILL WILSON, Senior Program Officer, Transportation Research Board PANOLA GOLSON, Program Associate (BEES)

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS DOUGLAS M. CHAPIN, Chair, NAE,1 MPR Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia ROBERT W. FRI, Vice Chair, Resources for the Future (senior fellow emeritus), Washington, D.C. ALLEN J. BARD, NAS,2 University of Texas, Austin DAVID L. BODDE, Clemson University, South Carolina PHILIP R. CLARK, NAE, GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired), Boonton, New Jersey E. LINN DRAPER, JR., NAE, American Electric Power, Inc. (emeritus), Austin, Texas CHARLES GOODMAN, Southern Company, Birmingham, Alabama DAVID G. HAWKINS, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, D.C. MARTHA A. KREBS, California Energy Commission, Sacramento GERALD L. KULCINSKI, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison DAVID K. OWENS, Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM F. POWERS, NAE, Ford Motor Company (retired), Ann Arbor, Michigan TONY PROPHET, Carrier Corporation, Farmington, Connecticut MICHAEL P. RAMAGE, NAE, ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company (retired), Moorestown, New Jersey EDWARD S. RUBIN, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MAXINE SAVITZ, NAE, Honeywell, Inc. (retired), Los Angeles, California PHILIP R. SHARP, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts SCOTT W. TINKER, University of Texas, Austin Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director ALAN CRANE, Senior Program Officer MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PANOLA GOLSON, Project Assistant 1   NAE, National Academy of Engineering. 2   NAS, National Academy of Sciences.

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report Acknowledgments The committee wishes to thank members of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, all of whom contributed a significant amount of their time and effort to this National Research Council (NRC) study by giving presentations at meetings, responding to requests for information, or providing valuable information. In addition, the chair wishes to recognize the committee members and the National Academies staff for their hard work in organizing and planning committee meetings and their individual efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William G. Agnew (NAE), General Motors Corporation (retired), Paul Blumberg, Independent Consultant, Andrew Brown, Jr. (NAE), Delphi Corporation, Robert Epperly, Epperly Associates, Norman Gjostein (NAE), Ford Motor Company (retired), James G. Hansel, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.,

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report Thomas M. Jahns, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Trevor O. Jones (NAE), Biomec, Inc., Fritz R. Kalhammer, Electric Power Research Institute (retired), Robert J. Nowak, Consultant, William F. Powers (NAE), Ford Motor Company (retired), Richard J. Robbins (NAE), The Robbins Group LLC, and Daniel Sperling, University of California, Davis. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William H. Press (NAS) and Maxine L. Savitz (NAE). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   12      Background,   12      Goals and Targets,   14      Organization of the Partnership,   14      Interrelationship of Vehicle and Fuel Technologies,   18      Advanced Internal Combustion Engines and Fuels,   19      Advanced Fuel Cell Vehicles and Fuels,   21      Committee Approach and Organization of This Report,   22      References,   24 2   MAJOR CROSSCUTTING ISSUES   25      Program Decision Making,   25      Safety,   33      Learning Demonstration: National Hydrogen Vehicle/Infrastructure Program,   39      Program Structure,   41      Environmental Impacts of Alternative Pathways,   47      References,   48

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report 3   VEHICLE SUBSYSTEMS   50      Introduction,   50      Advanced Combustion Engines, Emission Controls, and Hydrocarbon Fuels,   53      Fuel Cells,   60      Hydrogen Storage,   67      Electrical Energy Storage,   71      Electric Propulsion, Electrical Systems, and Power Electronics,   77      Structural Materials,   81      References,   85 4   HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, DELIVERY, AND DISPENSING   86      Program Overview,   86      Hydrogen Fuel Pathways,   89      Hydrogen Production,   90      Hydrogen Delivery and Dispensing,   95      References,   96 5   OVERALL ASSESSMENT   97      Major Achievements and Technical Barriers,   97      Adequacy, Balance, and Funding of the Program,   102      Reference,   107     APPENDIXES         A   U.S. Council for Automotive Research Consortia   111     B   Organization Chart for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy   113     C   Biographical Sketches for Committee Members   115     D   Presentations at Committee Meetings   123     E   Participants in Hydrogen Storage Projects for FY04 and FY05   127     F   Acronyms and Abbreviations   129

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report Tables and Figures TABLES 2-1   Progress on Systems Analysis Activities,   32 2-2   FY05 Budget for Hydrogen-Related Safety Codes and Standards Activities,   35 3-1   Goals and Status of the Advanced Combustion Engines and Emission Controls Activity,   54 3-2   Technical Targets for an 80-kWe (net) Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power System Operating on Direct Hydrogen,   61 3-3   Funding for Fuel Cell Technology Programs,   61 3-4   Hydrogen Storage Goals,   68 3-5   Technical Targets for Electrochemical Storage,   74 3-6   Technical Targets for Power Electronics and Electric Motors,   79 3-7   Weight Savings for Lightweight Materials,   83 5-1   DOE Funding for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies,   104 5-2   DOE Funding Supporting FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Goals in the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies,   105 FIGURES 1-1   FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership organizational structure,   15 1-2   Fuel efficiency for U.S. fleet by model year for cars and trucks, expressed as ton-mpg,   20

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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report 1-3   Fuel economy of the U.S. automotive and light truck fleet for model years 1978 to 2002,   21 2-1   Analysis domains for systems analysis efforts by the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership,   30 2-2   Overview of the systems analysis activity,   31 2-3   FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership as a framework for communication,   43 3-1   Technical areas and relative funding for the ACEC activity, FY04,   55 3-2   Status of hydrogen storage technologies relative to targets,   69 5-1   FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership funding for FY05,   103 5-2   Distribution of funding for hydrogen technology and fuel cell activities for FY05 by RD&D category,   106