However, unique storage issues in the chain from production to tank are likely to be found, which could lead to high costs and energy losses. (See Chapter 3, section on hydrogen storage, for a discussion of onboard hydrogen storage for vehicles.)

As discussed in Chapter 2, the learning demonstration programs are very important to validate current component and systems concepts and to uncover previously unknown issues. They will establish many system and engineering parameters for a complete operating hydrogen supply and fuel cell transportation system, especially for addressing the interfaces between the vehicle and the hydrogen fueling appliance, and between the appliance and the on-site production and/or refueling system.

Recommendation. The technical teams working on hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and storage should identify the unique R&D needs for hydrogen storage for production, as well as for delivery and dispensing, that are not being adequately addressed by the current project portfolio.


Beecy, D.A., V.A. Kuuskraa, and C. Schmidt. 2002. “A perspective on the potential role of geologic options in a national carbon management strategy.” Journal of Energy and Environmental Research 2(1).

DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2004. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure: Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan, DOE/GO-102003-1741. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Available on the Web at <>.

DOE. 2005. Department of Energy FY2006 Congressional Budget Request. DOE/ME-053. Available on the Web at <>.

EIA (Energy Information Administration). 1999. U.S. Coal Reserves: 1997 Update Available on the Web at <>.

NRC/NAE (National Research Council/National Academy of Engineering). 2004. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

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