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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis APPENDIXES
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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis APPENDIX A Contributors Roy S. Berns is the Richard S. Hunter Professor in Color Science, Appearance, and Technology at the Munsell Color Science Laboratory and Graduate Coordinator of the Color Science master’s degree program within the Center for Imaging Science at Rochester Institute of Technology. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in textile science from the University of California at Davis and a Ph.D. degree in chemistry with an emphasis in color science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. His research includes spectral-based imaging, archiving, and reproduction of cultural heritage; algorithm development for multi-ink printing; the use of color and imaging sciences for art conservation science; and colorimetry. He is active in the International Commission on Illumination, the Council for Optical Radiation Measurements, the Inter-Society Color Council, and the Society for Imaging Science and Technology. He has authored over 150 publications including the third edition of Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology. During the 1999-2000 academic year, he was on sabbatical at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., as a Senior Fellow in Conservation Science. During 2000, Dr. Berns was invited to participate in the Technical Advisory Group of the Star-Spangled Banner Preservation Project. He is currently involved in a joint research program in museum imaging with the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. He is also collaborating with the Art Institute of Chicago and the Van Gogh Museum in digitally rejuvenating paintings that have undergone undesirable color changes. Barbara H. Berrie is senior conservation scientist at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. She received her B.Sc.(Hons) in chemistry from St. Andrews
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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis University, Scotland, and her Ph.D. on electron transfer reactions from Georgetown University. She was awarded a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Naval Research Laboratory where she investigated the reaction of carbon dioxide with low-valent palladium compounds. She has worked at the National Gallery since 1984. Dr. Berrie has always been interested in the alchemy of turning base materials into art; now she is involved in studying the materials and painting methods of artists and analysis of materials in works of art in order to understand the artist’s original intention, and address issues of authenticity and preservation. She has used chemical analysis in the study of over 300 works of art in all media, including works on paper, easel paintings, and sculpture. She has published on paintings by Dosso Dossi, Gerard David, and Orazio Gentileschi among others and on the watercolors of Winslow Homer. Berrie is a Fellow of the International Institute for Conservation. She is the editor of the forthcoming volume of Artists’ Pigments that will be published by the National Gallery of Art. Robin J. H. Clark is the Sir William Ramsay Professor of Chemistry and former Dean of Science at University College London. His research on physical inorganic chemistry and spectroscopy is concerned with synthesis, characterisation, and structure, focusing mainly on the electronic and vibrational spectroscopy of inorganic compounds, on matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy of photochemically generated species, and on infrared-based spectroelectrochemistry of redox-active species. In particular, he has made seminal contributions to virtually all aspects of Raman spectroscopy, notably to the characterisation of deeply coloured materials (e.g., TiI4) and to metal-metal bonded (e.g., M2X8n-) and linear-chain species, to gas-phase Raman band contour analysis, to Raman band intensities and the nature of the chemical bond, to the theory and practice of resonance Raman spectroscopy (including its application to the determination of excited state geometries), to nanostructures and thin, photoactive oxide/sulfide films on glass and, at the Arts/Science interface, to the application of Raman microscopy to the characterisation of pigments on medieval manuscripts, paintings, icons, papyri, sherds, and other artefacts. His research is embodied in nearly 500 scientific papers, 3 books, and 36 edited books. He has acted as Visiting Professor in 13 universities and has lectured in over 350 universities and institutions in 33 countries throughout the world. He was elected Hon FRSNZ (1989), FRS (1990), FRSA (1992), FUCL (1992), Hon DSc(Cant 2001), HonFRI (2004), and a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit (CNZM, 2004). John K. Delaney has been a scientific consultant to the Conservation Division of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., since 1990, and has consulted on infrared imaging applications for other major American museums. He has published over 20 peer-reviewed papers on spectroscopy and several papers on infrared imaging in art conservation. He received his Ph.D. in Biophysics from The
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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis Rockefeller University. He completed post-doctoral studies in the spectroscopy of biomolecules at the University of Arizona’s Department of Chemistry and the Department of Biological Chemistry at John Hopkins University’s School of Medicine. He is currently Chief Scientist for the Business Unit of Surveillance and Reconnaissance Systems, which is a part of Optical and Space Systems of Goodrich Corporation. Janet G. Douglas is a Conservation Scientist in the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art’s Department of Conservation and Scientific Research at the Smithsonian Institution. Her area of research involves the analysis of a variety of inorganic materials relating to Asian art such as jade, stone, pigments, metals, and corrosion products. She holds an M.A. in Geology (Metamorphic petrology) from Bryn Mawr College, awarded in 1980. She was a mineralogist at the U.S. Bureau of Mines for 5 years, involved in asbestos research. At the Freer and Sackler Galleries, her work involves research on Asian art and archaeological materials to answer questions relating to their authenticity, cultural context, and method of manufacture. Recent projects involve the mineralogical study of early Chinese jades, characterization of glass and stone gokok beads from Korea, and petrographic analysis of stone sculpture from Cambodia. Molly Faries received her Ph.D. from Bryn Mawr College in 1972. During her years at Indiana University/Bloomington from 1975 on, she directed two long-term infrared reflectography (IRR) research projects: one a National Endowment for the Humanities Basic Research Grant (1984-1987) and the second, a Samuel H. Kress Foundation Grant for Art Historical Study Using Infrared Reflectography (1990-1997). Since 1998, she has also held a chair in Technical Studies in Art History at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. Currently, she is involved in research for the catalogue of the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century northern collection of the Centraal Museum, Utrecht (funded by the Mondrian Foundation), and she is CPI for a project entitled, “Infrared Reflectography: Evaluative Studies,” in the interdisciplinary De Mayerne Program funded by the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), linking the exact sciences, conservation, and art history. In 1995, for her many publications in the field of northern European painting, she was awarded the College Art Association/National Institute for Conservation Joint Award for Distinction in Scholarship and Conservation, and in 2001, she was awarded the American Institute for Conservation Caroline and Sheldon Keck Award for Excellence in Education. Recent publications include The Madonnas of Jan van Scorel, Serial Production of a Cherished Motif (2000) and Recent Developments in the Technical Examination of Early Netherlandish Painting: Methodology, Limitations & Perspectives (2003). Colin F. Fletcher is a Program Manager of Mouse Genetics at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF). His area of research is the
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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis genetic analysis of mouse models of human disease, specifically neurological mutants that display ataxia. While at GNF he was a scientific co-founder of Phenomix Corp. Prior to joining GNF, he was a staff scientist in the Mammalian Genetics Laboratory at the National Cancer Institute. In the course of his research Dr. Fletcher employs a variety of imaging modalities, including confocal microscopy, magnetic resonance, X-ray, and low-light luciferase imaging with cryogenically cooled CCDs. A long-standing interest in the scientific examination of works of art has lead to the previous publication of two reports in Studies in Conservation. Dr. Fletcher received his Ph.D. from The Rockefeller Institute in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and his A.B. from Dartmouth College in Biochemistry. Joyce Hill Stoner has taught for the Winterthur/University of Delaware (UD) Program in Art Conservation for 29 years and served as its director for 15 years (1982-1997). She graduated Phi Beta Kappa summa cum laude from the College of William and Mary in 1968. She received her Master’s degree in Art History at the Institute of Fine Arts of New York University (1970), her diploma in conservation at the NYU Conservation Center (1973), and a Ph.D. in Art History (1995, UD). She has been a Visiting Scholar in Painting Conservation at the Metropolitan Museum and at the J. Paul Getty Museum. In 1976, she founded the oral history project for the Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation and has interviewed more than 45 major art conservation professionals internationally. Both an art historian and a practicing paintings conservator, Stoner has treated paintings for many museums and private collectors and was senior conservator of the team for the five-year project of examination and treatment of Whistler’s Peacock Room at the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Stoner has authored more than 60 book chapters and articles, and has recently been studying the paintings of the Wyeth family. She is currently serving as a Vice President of the Board of Directors of the College Art Association and a Vice President of the Council of the International Institute for Conservation. In June 2003 she received the AIC “Lifetime Achievement Award” sponsored by University Products. Tom Learner is a Senior Conservation Scientist at Tate in London, the UK’s national collection of British and international 20th/21st century art. He received a Master’s degree in Chemistry from Oxford University in 1988 and a Diploma in the Conservation of Easel Paintings from the Courtauld Institute of Art, London in 1991. He spent a year as a Getty Intern in the Painting Conservation and Scientific Research Departments at the National Gallery of Art (NGA), Washington, D.C., and then joined the Conservation Department of the Tate Gallery in 1992, where he established appropriate analytical protocols for the identification and characterisation of twentieth-century painting materials with Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGCMS). During this time he received his Ph.D. in Chemistry on The
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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis Characterisation of Acrylic Painting Materials and Implications for their Use, Conservation and Stability from Birkbeck College, University of London in 1997. He was a guest scholar at the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) in 2001, assessing analytical techniques to follow changes in artists’ acrylic emulsion paints with accelerated light aging and with water immersion. He has written two books: The Impact of Modern Paints, co-authored with Jo Crook and published in 2000, and The Analysis of Modern Paints, published in 2004. He is currently coordinating a collaborative research venture into modern paints between the GCI, the NGA, and Tate, in which three initial areas of focus are improving methods for chemical analysis, studying their physical properties and assessing cleaning treatments. Carol Mancusi-Ungaro serves as Associate Director for Conservation and Research at the Whitney Museum of American Art and Founding Director of the Center for the Technical Study of Modern Art at Harvard University Art Museums. She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Connecticut College in 1968 and a Master of Arts degree from the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University in 1970. She trained and worked in conservation at the Yale University Art Gallery until she assumed a position of Conservator of Paintings at the British Art Center at Yale. Subsequent positions included Conservator of Paintings at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California, and at the Intermuseum Conservation Association in Oberlin, Ohio. For 19 years she served as Chief Conservator of The Menil Collection in Houston, Texas, and during that time she also consulted on the conservation of twentieth-century paintings at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. She has lectured widely on the conservation of modern art and written for retrospective catalogues on Mark Rothko and Jackson Pollock and most recently for the catalogue raisonné of Barnett Newman. In 2004 she received the College Art Association/Heritage Preservation Award for Distinction in Scholarship and Conservation. In her joint position, she teaches undergraduate and graduate students at Harvard University and continues to engage in research documenting the materials and techniques of living artists as well as other issues pertaining to the conservation of modern art. Louisa C. Matthew received her Ph.D. in Italian Renaissance Art History from Princeton University with a thesis on Venetian painting. She received fellowships from the Delmas Foundation, the Harvard Center for Italian Renaissance Studies at Villa I Tatti in Florence, Italy, and recently a paired Kress fellowship together with Dr. Barbara Berrie at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Visual Arts at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Currently, Dr. Matthew is an Associate Professor of Art History at Union College in Schenectady, N.Y. Christopher J. McNamara received his Ph.D. in Aquatic Ecology in 2001 from the Department of Biological Sciences at Kent State University. Since receiving his doctorate, he has worked in the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences at
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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis Harvard University, first as a Postdoctoral Fellow and currently as a Research Associate. His research focuses on the ecology of biofilm bacteria and he has studied biofilms in diverse systems such as streams and aircraft fuel tanks. He has also studied the role of biofilms in deterioration of cultural heritage materials such as limestone from Maya ruins, protective coatings for bronze statues, synthetic cloth in Apollo spacesuits, and wax sculptures by Edward Degas. Ralph Mitchell is the Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Biology in the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard. His Laboratory of Applied Microbiology has as its focus the microbiology of surfaces. The laboratory investigates the basic processes involved in the formation of biofilms on surfaces. His research group emphasizes the effects of biofilms on degradation of stone, metals, and artificial polymers. Current research in his laboratory involves the role of microorganisms in the biodeterioration of Maya sites in Mexico and in microbial processes resulting in corrosion of metals in the U.S.S. Arizona memorial. Richard Newman is Head of Scientific Research at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, where he has worked since 1986. His lab oversees scientific research on the Museum’s collections carried out in collaboration with curatorial and conservation activities. One of his research interests is scientific methods for establishing the provenance of stone sculptures and the application of alteration layers in helping to resolve questions of authenticity. He is particularly interested in interdisciplinary research projects on works of art involving scientists, conservators, and art historians, and subjects he has studied range from qero cups produced in the Inka and colonial periods in Peru, to stone sculptures from the Indian sub-continent, to painting materials used in ancient Egypt. He collaborated with an art historian, conservator, and technical photographer in a 1988 book, Examining Velazquez, which received the 1991 Award for Distinction in Scholarship and Conservation from the College Art Association and National Institute for Conservation. Thomas D. Perry IV is the Sandia National Laboratories Campus Executive Graduate Fellow at Harvard University. His research involves understanding the processes of deterioration of materials, including stone, aluminum, and artificial polymers, by microorganisms living in biofilms. Biofilms are thin films of microorganisms living on surfaces that are capable of changing their surrounding environment through production of metabolites resulting in affected material deterioration. He is particularly interested in the specific mineral binding and mineralization caused by microbially produced polymers. Michael R. Schilling earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees in chemistry from The California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. He has worked at The Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) since 1983 and presently holds the position of Se-
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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis nior Scientist in charge of the Analytical Research Section. Michael oversees and coordinates a wide variety of projects in his section: applied research in materials analysis, scientific support to GCI’s field conservation projects, study of museum collections, evaluation of the air quality in museums, assessment of safe levels of lighting in museum galleries, and characterization of building materials. One research area in which Analytical Research scientists have developed considerable expertise is the characterization and analysis of organic materials. In this project, several gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedures were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of natural organic binding media in paints. He and other scientists in the Analytical Research Section have conducted numerous workshops that were developed to inform conservation professionals about these GC-MS procedures. Since 1997, Michael and his staff have been studying the materials and techniques of modern and contemporary artists. Much of this work has involved the analysis of modern synthetic binding media and synthetic organic pigments. Michael has participated in collaborative projects to study and preserve wall paintings in the tomb of Nefertari, located in Luxor, Egypt, and also in the Mogao Grottoes, which is near the city of Dunhuang in the Gansu Province of China. He was also a member of a GCI research team that studied the Dead Sea Scrolls. Elizabeth Walmsley is a painting conservator at the National Gallery of Art (NGA), Washington, D.C. She has also worked on the NGA’s systematic catalogue project from which has stemmed her interests in the technical examination of Old Master paintings using digital imaging, infrared reflectography, and x-radiography, and in the history of conservation. She graduated with an AB from Dartmouth College and received an M.A. in Art History with a Certificate in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College. Paul M. Whitmore was trained as a chemist, getting a B.S. from Caltech and a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. He has worked in art conservation science for his entire professional career, starting at the Environmental Quality Laboratory at Caltech, working with Professor Glen Cass studying the effects of air pollution on works of art. From there, he went to the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University, where he worked as a scientist in what is now the Straus Center for Conservation. Since 1988 he has been at Carnegie Mellon University, directing the Research Center on the Materials of the Artist and Conservator. His current research interests are in material degradation chemistries, intrinsic and environmental risk factors for those processes, and chemical sensors for material aging processes and risk factors. He has published on paper deterioration, its treatment, and damage induced by humidity changes; acrylic paint media stability and the physical damage to acrylic coatings from shrinkage stresses during drying; fading of colorants from air pollutant exposure; fading of transparent paint glazes from light exposure and the relationship between photochemical
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Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis degradation and color changes; and projects utilizing a new nondestructive probe of light stability for colored artifact materials. He has edited a book, Contributions to Conservation Science, a compilation of research papers published by the first director of the Center, Robert Feller. He is currently senior editor of the Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. John Winter is a chemist (B.A., Cambridge University, Ph.D., University of Manchester) who, after a period of academic and industrial research, moved into the field of archaeological science and then into research on works of art using scientific methods. He holds the position of Conservation Scientist on the staff of the Department of Conservation and Scientific Research, Freer Gallery of Art/ Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. These museums hold the national collections of Asian art, which form the chief focus of research in the department. Dr. Winter’s own studies have mainly centered around East Asian paintings, their components, structural aspects, and the influence of microstructure and macrostructure on deterioration processes. He has published work on Chinese ink (the ubiquitous black design component across China, Japan, and Korea), lead-based white pigments, methods for the identification of organic colorants used as design components or as support dyes, painting techniques including those based on the use of precious metals, deterioration processes in East Asian paintings, and on other aspects of paintings as physical objects. Dr. Winter is a past President of the International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, and has received research support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation as well as from the Smithsonian Institution itself.
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