Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site

Interim Report

Committee on the Management of Certain Radioactive Waste Streams Stored in Tanks at Three Department of Energy Sites

Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site Interim Report Committee on the Management of Certain Radioactive Waste Streams Stored in Tanks at Three Department of Energy Sites Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under cooperative agreement number DE-FC01-04-EW07022. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09693-6 Cover photograph: Taken from Tank 4 Interior Photo Study - 1954 Pre-Startup. T.B. Caldwell, CBU-PIT-2005-00111. Aiken, S.C. Westinghouse Savannah River Company. May 5, 2005. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report COMMITTEE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF CERTAIN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS STORED IN TANKS AT THREE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SITES FRANK L. PARKER, Chair, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee HADI ABU-AKEEL, AMTENG Corp., Vienna, Virginia JOHN S. APPLEGATE, Indiana University School of Law, Bloomington HOWIE CHOSET, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PAUL C. CRAIG, University of California, Davis ALLEN G. CROFF, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), Tennessee PATRICIA J. CULLIGAN, Columbia University, New York City, New York KEN CZERWINSKI, University of Nevada, Las Vegas RACHEL DETWILER, Braun Intertec Corp, Minneapolis, Minnesota EDWIN E. HERRICKS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign TISSA ILLANGASEKARE, Colorado School of Mines, Golden MILTON LEVENSON, Bechtel International (retired), Menlo Park, California PAUL A. LOCKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland MICHAEL H. MOBLEY, Mobley Radiation Consulting, Clarksville, Tennessee DIANNE R. NIELSON, Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City KEN E. PHILIPOSE, AECL/Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada ALFRED P. SATTELBERGER, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico ANNE E. SMITH, Charles River Associates, Washington, D.C. LESLIE SMITH, University of British Columbia, Canada DONALD W. STEEPLES, University of Kansas, Lawrence Consultant RODNEY C. EWING,1 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Staff BARBARA PASTINA, Study Director MICAH D. LOWENTHAL, Senior Program Officer JOHN R. WILEY, Senior Program Officer DARLA J. THOMPSON, Research Associate LAURA D. LLANOS, Senior Program Assistant MARILI ULLOA, Senior Program Assistant 1   Dr. Rodney Ewing resigned from the committee on May 10, 2005 and was appointed as a consultant.

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD RICHARD A. MESERVE, Chair, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. S. JAMES ADELSTEIN, Vice Chair, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts HAROLD I. BECK, Department of Energy Environmental Laboratory (retired), New York City, New York JOEL S. BEDFORD, Colorado State University, Fort Collins ROBERT M. BERNERO, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University, Pullman JAMES E. CLEAVER, University of California, San Francisco ALLEN G. CROFF, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), Tennessee DAVID E. DANIEL, University of Texas at Dallas SARAH C. DARBY, Clinical Trial Service Unit (CTSU), Oxford, United Kingdom SHARON L. DUNWOODY, University of Wisconsin, Madison RODNEY C. EWING, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ROGER L. HAGENGRUBER, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KLAUS KÜHN, Technische Universität Clausthal, Germany SUSAN M. LANGHORST, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri NIKOLAI P. LAVEROV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow MILTON LEVENSON, Bechtel International (retired), Menlo Park, California C. CLIFTON LING, Memorial Hospital, New York City, New York PAUL A. LOCKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland WARREN F. MILLER, Los Alamos National Laboratory (retired), New Mexico ANDREW M. SESSLER, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California ATSUYUKI SUZUKI, Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan, Tokyo JOHN C. VILLFORTH, Food and Drug Law Institute (retired), Derwood, Maryland PAUL L. ZIEMER, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Staff KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Senior Board Director EVAN DOUPLE, Scholar RICK JOSTES, Senior Program Officer MICAH D. LOWENTHAL, Senior Program Officer BARBARA PASTINA, Senior Program Officer JOHN R. WILEY, Senior Program Officer CATHERINE S. BERKLEY, Financial and Administrative Officer TONI GREENLEAF, Financial and Administrative Associate DARLA J. THOMPSON, Research Associate LAURA D. LLANOS, Senior Program Assistant MARILI ULLOA, Senior Program Assistant COURTNEY GIBBS, Program Assistant JAMES YATES, JR., Office Assistant

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report List of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Edward L. Albenesius, Consultant, Aiken, South Carolina Michael J. Bell, Consultant, Bethany Beach, Delaware Robert M. Bernero, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland Sue B. Clark, Washington State University, Pullman Edward Lahoda, Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Fred J. Molz III, Clemson University, Anderson, South Carolina John M. Palms, University of South Carolina, Columbia Ben Rusche, Management & Technical Resources, Inc., West Columbia, South Carolina Barry Scheetz, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Charles D. Shackelford, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Chris G. Whipple, ENVIRON International Corporation, Emeryville, California Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard A. Conway, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia, and John F. Ahearne, Sigma Xi and Duke University, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report Contents     SUMMARY   1 I   INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND   11      The Task,   11      Background,   14      Legal Criteria,   19 II   IDEAL OBJECTIVES AND REAL-WORLD CHALLENGES   21      Ideal Objectives for the Tank Wastes,   21      Real-World Challenges: Status and Difficulties in Achieving Ideal Objectives,   22 III   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   37      Paths Toward Solutions to Tank Waste Problems,   37 IV   FUTURE PLANS FOR THE STUDY   53     REFERENCES   55     APPENDIXES   60 A   Statement of Task and Performance Objectives,   60 B   Information-Gathering Meetings,   63 C   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   67 D   Acronyms,   73 E   Maps of the Savannah River Site,   75 F   Federal Facility Agreement Waste Removal Schedule,   78

OCR for page R1
Tank Wastes Planned for On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: The Savannah River Site - Interim Report This page intentionally left blank.