1. Initial focus of the research process on addressing the economic and social needs of society.

  2. Creation of mechanisms that facilitate the transfer of technologies from the research sector to users through

  • creation of databases connecting new technological ideas and industrial needs

  • creation of a network of technology brokers able to bridge the cultural gap between researchers with ready developments and industry, government, and those needing solutions

  • development of technoparks and business incubators, including commercialization consulting centers in the fields of management, business planning, intellectual property, legislation, and so forth

  • establishment of special technology transfer departments at universities and research and development (R&D) centers

  • enhanced exchanges of personnel between the scientific community and industry on joint science and research projects

It is obvious that the problem of developing technologies and new kinds of products can be resolved mainly through the efforts of large science and industrial centers outfitted with adequate equipment and research infrastructure, as well as through the application of sufficient financial resources. The majority of technologies with potential commercial use are concentrated in the defense complex. Therefore, this field is the focus of enormous resources for commercialization. However, manufacturing of new products requires not only the money but also the skills to develop and produce competitive products in a short time frame while offering an acceptable price and meeting the needs of potential buyers. It is this stage, namely commercialization, that has been almost entirely absent. Some reasons for this include

  • lack of motivation to commercialize the activity and to operate in the market, and a desire to obtain funding instead from federal and municipal budgets

  • inappropriate enterprise structure to meet market requirements

  • poor management and lack of expertise in the market

For these reasons, small innovative businesses are more suitable for the commercialization process. It is obvious that such companies should employ scientifically broad-minded managers who are keen on technological issues, but, on the other hand, also have practical expertise in operating in the market. As a rule, the creation of such “techno-brokers” is the main obstacle in commercialization.

Development of small innovative companies is especially urgent for cities like Snezhinsk because of their social and economic development. In particular,



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