Going to Extremes

Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites

Committee on Durability and Life Prediction of Polymer Matrix Composites in Extreme Environments

National Materials Advisory Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites Going to Extremes Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites Committee on Durability and Life Prediction of Polymer Matrix Composites in Extreme Environments National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. MDA972-01-D-001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09715-0 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-55235-4 (PDF) Available in limited quantities from: Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 bmed@nas.edu http://www.nas.edu/bmed Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites COMMITTEE ON DURABILITY AND LIFETIME PREDICTION OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University, Chair KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, University of Connecticut, Vice Chair PAUL A. BARTOLOTTA, NASA Glenn Research Center MATTHEW B. BUCZEK, GE Aircraft Engines JOHN W. DAVIS, The Boeing Company NORMAN J. JOHNSTON, NASA Langley Research Center (retired) ANN MARIE SASTRY, University of Michigan SANFORD S. STERNSTEIN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Study Director LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD KATHARINE G. FRASE, IBM, Chair JOHN ALLISON, Ford Motor Company PAUL BECHER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory CHERYL R. BLANCHARD, Zimmer, Inc. BARBARA D. BOYAN, Georgia Institute of Technology L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University DIANNE CHONG, The Boeing Company FIONA DOYLE, University of California at Berkeley HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University JOHN J. GASSNER, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center SOSSINA M. HAILE, California Institute of Technology THOMAS S. HARTWICK, Consultant, Redmond, Washington ARTHUR H. HEUER, Case Western Reserve University ELIZABETH HOLM, Sandia National Laboratories ANDREW T. HUNT, nGimat Company FRANK E. KARASZ, University of Massachusetts CONILEE G. KIRKPATRICK, HRL Laboratories TERRY LOWE, Los Alamos National Laboratory HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University LINDA SCHADLER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, Consultant, Chevy Chase, Maryland JAMES C. SEFERIS, University of Washington SHARON L. SMITH, Lockheed Martin Corporation T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc. Staff GARY FISCHMAN, Director JAMES KILLIAN, Senior Program Officer MICHAEL MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Senior Program Officer BONNIE SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator MARTA VORNBROCK, Research Assistant COLLEEN BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites Preface The Department of Defense (DOD) Reliance Panel on Materials and Processes requested that the National Materials Advisory Board conduct a study to identify the barriers and current limitations on the use of polymer composites in extreme environments and recommend thoughtful strategies to enable increased reliable insertion and use of these materials in future critical applications. The emphasis was on issues surrounding methodologies for predicting the long-term performance of polymers in aggressive environments. This is not a new question. In a previous study by the National Materials Advisory Board,1 the government was encouraged to Support development and facilitate implementation of advanced analysis and computational methods to predict residual strength as a function of time; and Support programs to better understand basic failure mechanisms in advanced materials and their structures. Include the interactions at the various length scales of a material, from the microstructural to the macrostructural. The committee set out to address both recommendations with increased specificity. It was charged with conducting a workshop to assess the current scope of the scientific and technical challenges associated with the use of polymer matrix composites (PMCs) in extreme environments and to assess the advances necessary to predict their behavior with greater precision than is now possible. The committee was charged expressly to carry out the following tasks: Assess the limitations of current durability design practices for use of PMCs in extreme environments. Identify future durability and life prediction needs that would permit the expanded use of PMCs in extreme environments. Identify novel or recent advancements for life prediction of PMCs not yet adopted or accepted by industry and develop any lessons learned. Identify approaches and candidate tool sets that could accelerate the development of robust scientific methods to accurately predict the state of PMCs as they are exposed to their operating environment during their service life. Prepare a workshop report with recommendations for advancing the ability to predict the behavior of PMCs in extreme environments. 1   National Research Council. 1996. New Materials for Next-Generation Commercial Transports. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. p. 75. Available at <http://books.nap.edu/catalog/5070.html>. Accessed February 2005.

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites A workshop was held on July 26-27, 2004, that included committee members, experts, and DOD representatives; the committee also met on that occasion. Technical topics were presented and then discussed. The topics covered the design considerations, the suitability of current modeling practice, the influence of processing and materials, and accelerated testing. The DOD representatives also provided a useful overview and rationale to set the stage for the discussions. Formal presentations were brief to allow committee members and guests to interact and focus on the answers to the questions raised by the above tasks. By the conclusion of the meeting, the committee had agreed on several overarching recommendations. It remained for the committee to assign individuals to gather additional information and then to summarize their findings through e-mail exchanges and regular teleconferences. The recommendations and supporting information that resulted from this process are presented in the body of the report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Scott W. Case, Virginia Tech, Thomas S. Gates, NASA Langley Research Center, Gail Hahn, The Boeing Company, John L. Kardos, Washington University, Frederick J. Lisy, Orbital Research, Inc., Hugh L. McManus, Metis Design, Richard Stein, University of Massachusetts, and John Thesken, NASA Glenn Research Center. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William G. Agnew, General Motors Corporation (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee acknowledges the speakers from the government and from industry who took the time to share their ideas and experiences. The following individuals also greatly assisted the work of the committee through their participation in many of the committee’s activities: Linda Schadler, liaison to the National Materials Advisory Board, and Tia Benson-Tolle and Ozden Ochoa of the Air Force Research Laboratory. Finally, the committee acknowledges the contributions to this report by the staff of the National Academies, including Rachel Fezzie, Laura Toth, and Toni Marechaux, and by Carol Schutte, a consultant to the committee. L. Catherine Brinson, Chair Committee on Durability and Lifetime Prediction of Polymer Matrix Composites in Extreme Environments

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW   4      Defining the Challenge,   4      Polymer Matrix Composites,   4      Extreme Environments,   5      Durability and Lifetime Prediction,   9      Why PMCs Are Critical,   9      Complexities,   14 2   COMPOSITE PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR   16      Understanding Degradation,   16      Current Modeling Methodology,   18      State of Modeling,   19 3   A TEAM STRATEGY   26      Implementation Strategies,   28      Goals for Improved Teaming,   28 4   ROADMAPPING   31      Using Roadmaps,   31      Roadmapping Goals,   32 5   THE IMPORTANCE OF DATA   35      Data and Modeling,   35      Informatics as a Discipline,   36      Biomedical Informatics,   36      Biomedical Informatics as a Model,   37      Parallels for Materials Data,   38 6   A PATH FORWARD   41      PMC Phase I Activities,   42      PMC Phase II Activities,   43      PMC Phase III Activities,   43

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites     APPENDIXES         A Committee Members   47     B Frequently Used Abbreviations   50     C Why Polymers Are More Susceptible Than Other Materials to Environmental Damage   51     D Organizations Interested in Damage in Composite Materials   54     E Survey of Some Computational Models for Failure, Damage, and Degradation in Composite Materials   56     F Roadmapping Process   64     G Attendees at the July 2004 Workshop   66

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites Tables, Figures, and Boxes TABLES 1-1   Characteristics and Applications of High-Performance Fibers in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials,   5 1-2   Capabilities and Limitations of Some PMC Applications in a Variety of Extreme Conditions,   7 2-1   Papers Published in Selected Composite Areas, 1955-2004,   18 FIGURES 1-1   Specific stiffness and strength of a variety of PMCs in comparison to some metallic materials,   10 1-2   Percentage of composite components in commercial aircraft,   11 1-3   Production primary and secondary structure for the Boeing 777, an example of 1990s commercial application of composites,   12 1-4   Projections for composite use in the Boeing 787,   12 1-5   The aft strut fairing heat shield on the Boeing 777,   13 2-3-1   Cryogenic conformal fuel tank,   23 3-1   Teaming paradigm,   27 3-2   A new teaming paradigm,   28 3-3   The desired modeling paradigm showing teaming relationships and the replacement of an uninformed knockdown factor by mechanistically and physically based models and design,   29 4-1   Example of a technology roadmap implementation,   33 5-1   Parallels between bioinformatics data and materials data,   39 6-1   The Boeing 787 as designed will utilize composite materials and new manufacturing techniques,   44

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Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites BOXES 2-1   Coupling of Mechanisms,   17 2-2   Knockdown Factors,   22 2-3   Cryogenic Conformal Fuel Tanks,   23 5-1   Bioinformatics in Action at PharmGKB,   40