Biographical Memoirs


NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES



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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 86 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 86 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 86 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 86 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-09304-X INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20001 COPYRIGHT 2005 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 86 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     LAWRENCE HUGH ALLER BY MANUEL PEIMBERT   3     HARRY BEEVERS BY MAARTEN J. CHRISPEELS   17     FRANK ALDEN BOVEY BY FREDERIC C. SCHILLING AND ALAN E. TONELLI   37     NORMAN DAVIDSON BY HENRY A. LESTER AND AHMED ZEWAIL   61     HARRY GEORGE DRICKAMER BY JIRI JONAS   79     HAROLD EUGENE EDGERTON BY J. KIM VANDIVER AND PAGAN KENNEDY   97     HOWARD E. EVANS BY MARY JANE WEST-EBERHARD   119

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 86     WILLIS H. FLYGARE BY DAVID CHANDLER   137     JESSE LEONARD GREENSTEIN BY ROBERT P. KRAFT   163     DONALD R. GRIFFIN BY CHARLES G. GROSS   189     WASSILY HOEFFDING BY NICHOLAS I. FISHER AND WILLEM VAN ZWET   209     D. GALE JOHNSON BY VERNON W. RUTTAN, JAMES J. HECKMAN, AND G. EDWARD SCHUH   229     ROBERT THOMAS JONES BY WALTER G. VINCENTI   241     NORMAN CARL RASMUSSEN BY KENT F. HANSEN   261     GLENN WADE SALISBURY BY ROBERT H. FOOTE   277     WILLIAM REES SEARS BY NICHOLAS ROTT   299     FOLKE KARL SKOOG BY DONALD J. ARMSTRONG AND ELDON H. NEWCOMB   313     HIROSHI TAMIYA BY ANDREW A. BENSON   335     EVON ZARTMAN VOGT, JR. BY JOYCE MARCUS   355     ROBERT M. WALKER By P. Buford Price and Ernst Zinner   379

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 86 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy’s goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject’s work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation’s contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. R. STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary

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