REFERENCES

1. W. Mendel, ed., Manned Mars Mission, NASA M001, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1986.

2. T. Paine et al., Pioneering the Space Frontier: The Report of the National Commission on Space, Bantam Books, May 1986.

3. A. Cohen, Report of the 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, NASA, Washington, D.C., November 1989.

4. T.P. Stafford, America at the Threshold: Report of the Synthesis Group on America’s Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991.

5. D. Cooke et al., Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team, NASA Special Publication 6107, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tex., March 1997.

6. T.P. Stafford, America at the Threshold: Report of the Synthesis Group on America’s Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991.

7. Radiation limits for human exploration outside low Earth orbit have not yet been established. Radiation limits for astronauts in low Earth orbit for blood-forming organs are 25 cSv per month, 50 cSv per year, and 40 to 300 cSv per career (depending on age and gender). See, for example, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, Radiation Protection Guidance for Activities in Low-Earth Orbit, NCRP Report No. 132, NCRP, Bethesda, Md., 2001.

8. See, for example, P. Dimotakis, F. Dyson, D. Eardley, R. Garwin, J. Goodman, D. Hammer, W. Happer, J. Katz, C. Max, and J. Vesecky, “Interplanetary Travel: Nuclear Propulsion Prospects,” presentation based on JASON-01-752 Summer Study for the NASA Office of Space Science, JASON Program, The Mitre Corp., McLean, Va., 2001, p. 8.

9. L.S. Mason, “A Comparison of Brayton and Stirling Space Nuclear Power Systems for Power Levels from 1 Kilowatt to 10 Megawatts,” NASA-TM 2001-210593, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, 2001.

10. See, for example, P. Dimotakis, F. Dyson, D. Eardley, R. Garwin, J. Goodman, D. Hammer, W. Happer, J. Katz, C. Max, and J. Vesecky, “Interplanetary Travel: Nuclear Propulsion Prospects,” presentation based on JASON-01-752 Summer Study for the NASA Office of Space Science, JASON Program, The Mitre Corp., McLean, Va., 2001, p. 8.

11. L.S. Mason, “A Comparison of Brayton and Stirling Space Nuclear Power Systems for Power Levels from 1 Kilowatt to 10 Megawatts,” NASA-TM 2001-210593, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, 2001.

12. S.K. Borowski et al., “Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future Missions to the Moon and Mars,” AIAA-93-4170, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 1993.

13. S.D. Howe, B. Travis, and D.K. Zerkle, “SAFE Testing Nuclear Rockets Economically,” Proceedings of the 20th Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2003), M.S. El-Genk, ed., American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 2003.

14. W.J. Broad, “U.S. Has Plans to Again Make Own Plutonium,” The New York Times, June 27, 2005, pp. A1 and A13.

15. See, for example, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy, Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Consolidation of Nuclear Operations Related to Production of Radioisotope Power Systems, DOE/EIS-0373D, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., June 2005. Available at <http://www.consolidationeis.doe.gov/>, last accessed February 2, 2006.



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