Barbara A. Blakeney, M.S., R.N., is President of the American Nurses Association (ANA). She is currently on leave from her role as Director of Health Services for the Homeless at the Boston Public Health Commission. Previously, she had served as the principal health nurse for homeless services and addiction services at the Division of Public Health, Department of Health and Hospitals in Boston, MA. She has held numerous ANA positions, including two terms as ANA Second Vice President and ANA First Vice President. In addition, she has been an adjunct professor in the Department of Family and Community Nursing, University of Massachusetts at Boston. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including ANA’s Pearl McIver Public Health Nurse Award for significant contributions to the field of public health on the national level.

Lawrence O. Gostin, J.D., is Associate Dean for Research and Academic Programs and Professor of Law at Georgetown University, as well as Professor of Public Health at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. He also directs the Center for Law and the Public’s Health at Johns Hopkins and Georgetown Universities. In the wake of September 11, 2001, he led the drafting of the Emergency Health Powers Act to combat bioterrorism and other emerging health threats. Prior to joining the faculties at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins, he served as Executive Director of the American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics and as an adjunct professor at the Harvard Law School and the Harvard School of Public Health. From 1974 to 1985, Professor Gostin was the head of the National Council of Civil Liberties (United Kingdom), legal director of the National Association of Mental Health (U.K.), and a faculty member at Oxford University. He is the Health Law and Ethics Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and author of Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint (University of California Press and the Milbank Memorial Fund, 2001) and Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader (University of California Press and the Milbank Memorial Fund, 2002), as well as of articles on international infectious disease law, ethical challenges in combating bioterrorism, and the legal ramifications of the SARS outbreak. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.

Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., recently became a Senior Scientist at the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), Washington, DC, after serving for four years as NTI’s Vice President for Biological Programs. Prior to joining NTI, Dr. Hamburg was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as principal policy advisor to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. From 1991 to 1997, she held the position of Commissioner of Health for the City of New York. As commissioner, Dr. Hamburg’s accomplishments included the cre-

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