• Toxicity & Eco-Toxicity Concepts

  • Problem-Based Approach

3. How might this foundation be continuously expanded as we move forward in order to stay current with rapid technology advances and new science applications for design, process, and products?

  • Understanding of biological organisms as chemical producers

  • Understanding the waste balance between human and environmental generators

4. What are, and what explains, the key areas of resistance to introduction of sustainability research and technology into materials and product design as well as educational curricula?


  • “culture eats strategy for breakfast every day of the week”

  • Lack of support from accreditation agencies

  • Inertia in an aging industry–“why change?”

  • Perception that green chemistry is not “real” chemistry

  • Stovepipes

  • Lack of understanding of the importance of sustainability

  • Multidisciplinary and cross-functional nature

  • Question is currently not natural

  • Need individual incentives to adopt sustainable practices; incentives will be different for individuals in different roles

  • Lack of acceptance from students, who are worried they are not going to learn what they need to get into medical school or other programs

  • Inherent problem with long-term thinking (intergenerational issues) and with definitions that tend to raise value issues that are difficult to handle

  • The ethical question is a bigger question–more so than the science and technological capabilities.

    • One cannot divorce ethics and S&T; we must consider trade-offs in making decisions. How do we begin to arrive at making these choices?


  • Funding constraints at federal, state, etc. level

  • Unwillingness to pay for green chemistry

  • The need to design for economic competitiveness and profit must be considered when developing sustainability practices and form-

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