5. Dr. Lackner discussed several “novel chemistry, products, and processes for the management of CO2 emissions.” What other novel chemistry, products, and processes can provide effective management of CO2 emissions? What are the R&D challenges in achieving commercialization of these processes?
Novel chemistry, products, and processes:
Development of novel catalyst chemistries, e.g., Fischer Tropsch with CO2
Innovative electrolysis applications
Direct photochemical hydrogen production
Absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere and general adsorption technology; for example:
Is there a CO2 absorbent that will reversibly remove CO2 from the atmosphere?
Development and use of annually renewable resources for efficient and effective carbon management
Algae for CO2 fixation
Sequestration in buildings, e.g., in cement (eco-cement)
R&D challenges for commercialization:
Revisit older gas-to-liquid technology to circumvent proprietary issues; perhaps organize an industry roundtable to examine pre-competitive issues (SEMATECH model)
Study and improve the kinetics of CO2 sequestration with minerals
Find ways to catalyze the formation of carbonates (e.g., calcium carbonate) for CO2 sequestration
Examine technical issues in the use of silicates for carbon sequestration (e.g., mining of silicate)
Handle volume differences that result from sequestration (larger final volume vs. smaller initial volume) and its effect upon materials transportation and storage
Study the energetics of absorption and desorption
Study the economics of regeneration and recovery
Identify alternative CO2 removal chemistries at reasonable rates.
Encourage wide scale fixative utilization of CO2 (e.g., Climate Change Program)
View CO2 as asset rather than waste; for example:
Utilize CO2 as energy carrier (carbon cycle)
The nation’s capital should be spent today to address CO2 management rather than spent over the next 50 years as the problem