chemical enterprise. More senior educators also need exposure and education. The problem is often lack of understanding, not opposition per se.

Provide sustainability focused NSF-IGERT-like training grants. Such programs are needed to help establish innovative new models for graduate education and stimulate collaborative research that transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. This would be an excellent way to provide incentives for faculty to change curricula while addressing the needs of graduate students entering this complex field.

Include sustainability as part of annual performance goals for R&D managers, product development heads, and business unit managers. As the industrial world shifts to the production of more and more sustainable products and services in response to feedback from nature and the human body and a changing market place, these managers will have to first understand and then support innovations that have a reduced environmental and social impact (or, literally eliminate risk). They will also need the tools and time to be able to teach the chemists and engineers in their organizations the basic concepts behind sustainability and green chemistry and engineering.

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