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Index A Accidents and emergencies, 17, 18, 46. 62 Acclimation and adaptation, 28-29 of newly acquired animals, 57, 58 to outdoor housing, 25, 30 Acquisition of animals, 57 Activity and exercise, 37, 38 Agricultural research, 4-5 Arrbome contaminants, 17, 22-23, 24, 33, 62-63 Arrflow, see Ventilation amd airflow Air pressure, 17, 31, 76, 79 Albinism, 35 Altematives to animal research, 1, 10, 117 recommended readings, 82-83 American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC), 102-103 American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), 13, 103 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), 103 Amencam Humane Association (AHA), 103- 104 Amencan Humane Education Society (AHES), 110 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 32 119 American Society- of Laboratory Animal Practitioners (ASLAP), 104 Amencam Society of Primatologists (ASP), 104 Amencam Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 65. 104-105 Amphibians, recommended readings, 83 Analgesia and analgesics, 12, 64-65 recommended readings, 83-84 Anesthesia and anesthetics, 12, 63, 64-65 recommended readings, 83-85 recovery from, 63-64, 79 waste gases, 17 Animal and Plant Health inspection Service (APHIS), 112-113, 114 Animal care and use protocols, 8-11 Animal training, 11, 25 Animal Welfare Act. 113, 114 Animal Welfare information Center (AWIC), 13, 37, 105 Animal Welfare Inebtute (AWI), 105 Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 2, 4, 8, 9,10,113,114,117 housing guidelines, 25, 26 on personnel qua if ica'.ions, 13, 61 on transport, 57 on veterinary care, 13 Antibiotics, 61 Anxiolytics, 65

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120 Apes, see Nonhuman primates Association of Primate Vetennarians (APV), 105-106 Australia and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching (ANZCCART), 106 Autoclaving of foods and bedding, 39, 41 for surgery, 62, 79 B Barrier entry systems, 16 Bedding, 24, 32, 41 changing of, 24, 29, 34, 42, 44 disposal, 15, 16 Behavior and behavior changes, 2, 11, 12, 22, 23, 25, 36-38 Biologic agents and hazards, 14, 16, 18, 44 recommended readings, 85-86 waste disposal, 44, 45 Biologic-safety cabinets, 17, 76 Birds, recommended readings, 87 Bites and scratches, 14, 18 Bordetella bronchiseptica, 59 Breeding and reproduction, 47, 57 environmental conditions for, 22, 25, 35 records, 46, 47 C Cages and caging, 23, 38 cleaning and sanitation, 24, 43, 44 complexities in, 25, 36 dimensions and space allocation, 25-28 floonng, 24, 43 see also Primary enclosures Calone restriction, 40 Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Medicine/L'Association canadiemne dela medecine des ammaux de laboratoire (CALAM/ACMAL), 106- 107 Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science/L ' Association canadienne pour la technologie des animeaux laboratoire (CALAM/ACTAL), 106-107 Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), 13, 107 Carcass disposal, 45, 73, 77 INDEX Cats, 38, 46 housing requirements, 25, 28, 32 procurement, 57 recommended readings, 87 Cable, space requirements, 26, 31, 38 Cedar shavings, 41 Ceilings, 75 Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), 107-108 Center for Laboratory Animal Welfare (CLAW), 110 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 16, 18 Cercopithecine herpesvlrus, 18, 59 Chairing, 11 Chemical cleaning agents, 14, 43, 62 Cbtickens, 28, 32 Circadian cycles, 34, 35 Cleaning and sanitation, 15, 24, 34, 42-44, 72, 77-78 Clinical records, 46-47 Clothing, 15, 17 Cold storage and refngeration, 39, 45, 77 Committees, see Institubonal animal care and use committees (lACUCs) Computer modeling as an alternative to animal use, 10, 117 in facility design, 31, 71 Conditioned-response protocols, 12 Construcdon materials, 23, 72 Contaminants airborne, 17, 22-23, 24, 33, 62-63 in food, 38, 39 recommended readings, 88-89 in water, 40, 41 Corridors, 16, 73, 77 Cryopreservation, 47-48 D Defecation, 23, 43 Dehydration, 12 Diagnosis, 59-60 Diet and dietary control, 12, 39, 40 Disaster planning, 46 Disease control, 57-58, 60 Disease susceptibility, 22-23, 37 Disinfection, 23, 24, 42-44 Disposable clothing, 15 Distress and euthanasia, 10, 65, 66 procedures causing, 10-11, 65, 117

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[ODES Diurnal cycles, 35 Dogs, 11, 37, 38, 46 housing requirements, 24, 25-26, 28, 29n, 32, 38 procurement, 57 recommended readings, 87 Doors, 73 Double-corridor facilities, 16 Drafts, 31 Drainage, 17, 24, 74 Drugs, 11 recommended readings, 96-97 Dry-bulb temperature, 29, 31 E Education and training of personnel, 13-14, 15, 16, 117 in noise reduction, 36 recommended readings, 100-101 in safety procedures, 15, 16 in surgical procedures, 61 Electric power systems, 76 Emergency procedures, 17, 18; 46, 62 Enclosures, see Cages and caging: Primary enclosures; Secondary enclosures Endangered Species Act, 114- 115 Entrapment, 23 Environmental conditions, 22-36 natural versus controlled, 4, 22, 25 see also Facilities; Housing Environmental enrichment, 21, 25, 27, 36-38 recommended readings, 88 Ergonomics, 15 Escape, 23, 24 Ether, 17 Ethics, recommended readings, 89 Euthanasia, 10, 65-66 recommended readings, 89 and surgicalprocedures, 62, 117 Exercise and activity, 37, 38 Exotic and wild species, 5, 30 endangered, 57, 114- 115 recommended readings, 89-90 F Facilities, 71-79 for cleaning and sanitation, 15, 72, 77-78 121 for hazardous-agent experimentation, 16-17, 72, 76 recommended readings, 87-88 safety design and support, 15-16 for surgery, 62-63, 78-79 see also Cages and caging; Housing; Outdoor housing; Primary enclosures; Secondary enclosures; Space requirements Farm animals, 4-5, 46 housing requirements, 4, 28, 30-31, 32, 38 recommended readings, 4-5, 90-91 surgery on, 63, 79 Field studies, 5 Fighting, 37 Filter-top cages, 24, 29, 33, 58 Fish and Wildlife Service, 57, 115 Fishes, recommended readings, 83 F oonng, 24. 74 in cages, 24, 43 Food and feeding, 23, 25, 3840 autoclavings, 39, 41 bowls and devices, 26, 39-40, 43 recommended reading, 94-95 restrictions, 12, 40 storage, 39, 40, 41, 77 Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR), 108 Furnishings, 23, 24, 26, 36-37 recommended readings, 88 G Gas concentrations, 22, 33, 34 Genetics, 4748 recommended readings, 91-92 Gerbils, 32 Goats, 26, 30, 58 Groups, see Social groups and social interaction Guinea pigs, 27, 43, 58, 59 H Hamsters, 27, 32, 43 Hazardous agents, 14, 16-17 recommended readings, 85-86, 88-89 waste disposal, 44, 45 Hearing protection, 17

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122 Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, 33, 34, 75-76 Heat loads, 30, 31, 32, 33 Height, of enclosures, 25, 26-27 HEPA filters (high-efficiency particulate air filters), 33-34, 76 Herpesvirus sinziae, 18, 59 Herpesvirus tamarinds, 59 Holidays, care dunng, 46 Horses, space requirements, 31, 38 Housing, 23, 117 factors in planning, 21-22 safety design, 15-16 see also Cages and caging: Outdoor housing; Primary enclosures: Secondary enclosures; Space requirements; and specific animals Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), 108-109 Human interaction, 38 Humidity and moisture, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 34, 75 Husbandry and management practices, 2, 38-46 for outdoor housing, 24-25 recommended readings, 92-93 see also Bedding; Cleaning and sanitation; Food and feeding; Records and recordkeeping; Repair and maintenance 1 Identification of animals, 46.57 Illuminating Engineenng Society of North America (IESNA), 35 Illumination, 34-35, 76 Irnmunizauon. 18 Immunocompromised animals, 15, 44 Inbreeding, 47, 48 Incineration, 45 Infecuous-disease studies, 18 Inspections, 9 Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), 2, 13, 109 Institutional anima care and use committees (lACIUCs), 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9-10, 11, 22 and housing design, 24, 26, 27 recommended readings, 82 and surgical procedures, 12, 61 Interagency Research Animal Committee, 116 International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations, 57 INDEX International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS), 109-110 Isolation, see Quarantine; Separation and isolation L Laboratory Animal Management Association (LAMA), 110 Laboratory personnel medical evaluation, 17-18 qualifications and training, 13-14, 117 recommended readings, 100-101 see also Occupational health and safety Laundenng services, 15 Light, 34-35, 76 Litter boxes, 26 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, 60 M Macaques, 18, 59 Macroenvironment, 22 Major survival surgery, 11-12, 61 Massachusetts Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA), 110 Medical examinations (personnel), 17-18 Metabolic processes, 22-23 Mice, 35, 58 diseases, 59, 60 housing requirements, 27, 32 Microenvironment, 22-23, 31 Modeling, see Computer modeling Moisture, see Humidaty and moisture Monkeys, see Nonhuman primates Mouse hepatitis virus, 59, 60 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, 59 N National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR), 111 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 16, 18, 111 National Research Council (NRC), 14, 16, 18 Natural environments, 4, 22, 25 Neuromuscular blocking agents, 65 Nocturnal animals, 35 Noise, 17, 36, 73, 77 Nomenclature, 48 recommended readings, 91-92

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INDEX Nonhuman pntllates, 17, 36, 40 clinical records, 46, 47 diseases of, 18, 58, 59 housing requirements, 24-29 passim, 32, 37 imports, 57 recommended readings, 93-94 restraint, 11 Nontraditional species, see Exotic and wild species Nutrition, see Food and feeding o Occupational health and safety, 5, 10, 14-18 recommended readings, 85-86 Odors. 32, 33, 34, 42, 44 Of fice for Protection from Research Risks, 111 Outbreeding, 47, 48 Outdoor housing, 24-25 acclimation, 25, 30 pert control, 45 water sources, 41 p Pain, 64, 117 control, 2, 10, 12, 64-65, 117 and euthanasia, 10, 65, 66 procedures causing, 10-11, 65, 117 recommended readings, 83-85 Paralysis, 65, 117 Parasites, readings, 95 Particulate concentrations, 22, 33, 34 Pasteurella mullocida, 59 Pastures, 4, 24, 25, 38 Pathology, readings, 95 Pedigrees, 47 Pens, 23, 24, 42-43 Perches, 23, 24, 25, 36 Perishable foods, 39 Pest control, 45-46 Pets, 57 Pharmacology, recommended readings, 96-97 Photoperiod, 34, 35, 74 Photostressors, 34 Phototoxic retinopathy, 35 Physical activity, 37, 38 Physical hazards, 14, 15, 16 Physical restraint, 11 Physiologic function, 11-12, 22-23 123 Pigeons, 28 Pigmentation, 35 Pilot studies, 10 Policies, 2-3 recommended readings, 93 see also Animal care and use protocols Ponies, 31 Postures and postural adjustments, 2, 11, 23, 25, 37 Poultry, 32 Power systems, 76 Primary enclosures, 22, 23-24 cleaning and sanitation, 42-44 dimensions and space allocation, 25-28 flooring, 24 furnishings, 23, 26, 36-37 temperature and humidity, 29 ventilation and airflow, 22, 24, 31-33 see also Cages and caging Primate information Center, 111 Primates, see Nonhuman primates Primate Supply information Clearinghouse (PSIC), 112 Procurement of animals, 57 Professional societies, 13, 102-112passim Protective clothing, 15, 17 Protocols, 8-11 Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Hmmame Care a-d Use of Laboratory Animals, 2, 8, 9, 10, 111, 116 housing guidelines, 26 on personnel qualifications, 13, 61 on safety, 14 on veterinary care, 13 Purina Mills, inc., 112 Q Quail, 28 Quarantines, 57, 58 see also Separation and isolation R Rabbits, 28, 32, 40, 43 diseases, 59 recommended readings, 97-98 Radiation, 14, 15, 45 Rats, 27, 32, 58 albindsm amd pbotoxicity, 35 diseases, 59, 60

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124 Records and recordkeeping clinical, 4647 genetic nnanagement, 47-48 identification, 46 Recycled airflow, 33-34, 76 Regulations, 2-3, 8, 10, 57 recommended readings, 93 Regulatory Enforcement of Animal Care (REAC), 112-113 Removals from experiments, 10, 11, 12 Repair and maintenance, 23, 34 Reproduction, see Breeding and reproduction Reptiles, recommended readings, 83 Respiratory protection, 17 Resting areas, 23, 25, 26, 36 Restraint, 11 Risk assessment, 14 Rodents, 36, 40, 43, 58 albinism amd photoxicity, 35 diseases of, 59, 60 housing requirements, 24, 25, 26, 27, 32 inbreeding, 47 pathogen-free, 60 recommended readings, 97-98 surgery on, 63, 78 toe-clipping, 46 Runs, 23, 24, 42-43 S Safety, see Occupational health and safety Sanitation, see Cleaning and sanitation Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), 112 Secondary enclosures, 22, 29, 44 doors and wmdows, 73-74 ventilation and airflow, 22, 31-33 see also Cages amd caging Secunty, 46, 73 Sedation and sedatives, 12, 65 Separation and isolation, 46, 58-59, 60, 72 Senal publications, 99-100 Sheep, 26, 30, 38 Shelf-life, of food, 39 Sheltered housing, 24 Shelves, 24, 36 Showers, 15, 17, 73 Sialodacryoadenitis virus, 59 Simian hemorrhagic fever, 59 Simian nnmunodeficiency virus, 59 INDEX Social groups amd social interaction, 21-27, 37- 38,40 Solid-bottom flooring, 24, 43 Space requirements, 25-28, 30, 31, 32, 38 Stabilization, 57, 58 Stenliration of cages and equipment, 24, 44 of food, 39 of hazardous wastes, 45 for surgery, 62 Storage facilities and containers, 72, 77 for food and bedding, 39, 40, 41, 77 for waste, 45, 72, 77 Subclinical infections, 59, 60 Surgical procedures, 11-12,60-64, 117 autoclaving, 62, 79 facilities, 62-63, 78-79 oversight, 56 postsurgical care, 63-64, 79 recommended readings, 83-85 Surveillance, 16, 18, 58, 59-60 Swine diseases, 59 space requirements, 26, 30 T Temperature, 22, 24, 28-34, 74, 75 Tetanus, 18 Tethering, 11 "3 R's" (replacement, reduction, and refinement), 108, 109 Timed lighting systems, 35, 76 Toe-clipping, 46 Traimng, see Animal training; Educauion and training of personnel Transgenic animals, 4748 Transport of animals, 57 Traps, 46 Treamment and therapeutic procedures, 60 Tuberculosis, 18, 57 Tunnels, 36 U Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), 112 Unne, 23, 43 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 57, 112-113, 114

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INDEX U.S. Department of the Intenor, 115 U 5 Government Principles for Uhlizatton and Care of Vertebrate Animals used in Testing, Research, and Training, 2, 5, 10, 116-117 V Vaccination, of laboratory personnel, 18 Vegetables, 39, 40 Vendors of animals, 57 Ventilation and airflow, 17, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30- 34, 76-77, 78 Veterinarians part-time and consulting, 12 responsibilities of, 8, 9, 12-13, 46, 56, 63, 117 Veterinary care, 11, 12-13, 56-66, 117 Veterinary technicians education and training, 13 recommended readings, 100-101 Vinyl flooring, 24 Vitamin C, 39 125 W Walls, 74-75 Washing facilities. 15 Waste matenals, 15-16, 42-43, 44-45 biologic hazards, 44, 45 and outside shelters, 24 storage, 45, 72, 77 Water supply, 40 41 devices, 26, 40-41, 43-44 restriction, 12 Weekend care, 46 Wild animals, see Exotic and wild species Windows, 73-74 Wire flooring, 24, 43 Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (3hRPRC) Library, 113 Wood materials, 23, 41 z Zoo animals, recommended readings, 89-90 Zoonoses, 5, 14, 15, 18, 58 recommended readings, 85-86

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Related Publications The following publications are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055 (phone toll-free 1-800-624-6242 or call 202-334-3313 in the Washington metropolitan area) You may also order electronically via Luternet at http:llwww nap.edu. Additional related publications, including the quarterly ILAR Journal and Prin- ciples and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege Education, are avail- able directly from the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (phone: 202- 334-2590; fax: 202-334-1687; entail: ILAR@nas.edu; URL: http://www2.nas edu/ilarhome/). Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. Forthcoming Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates. Forthcoming Rodents: Laboratory Animal Management Series. Forthcoming Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Revised Edition. 1995 Dogs: Laboratory Animal Management Series. 1994 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Ninth Revised Edition. 1994 Nutrient Requirements of Fish. 1993 Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. 1992 Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing institutional Programs. 1991 Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. 1991

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Companion Guide to Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. 1991 Immunodeficient Rodents: A Guide to Their Immunobiology, Husbandry, and Use. 1989 Nutrient Requirements of Svnne, Ninth Revised Edition. 1988 Use of Laboratory Animals On Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 1988 Vitamin Tolerances of Animals. 1987 Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition. 1986 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs. 1985 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition. 1985 Nutrient Requirements of Goats. 1981 Mineral Tolerances of Domestic Animals. 1980 Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates. 1978 Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits. 1977

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GUIDE FOR THE CARE AND USE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS 1996(~*~) t~ 4' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1997 ~ 12 ~ 19 ~ up ~ spa: It's 4*~: ~~t t~t$*~*~:~99-15~ 36: 02-27851156 ~ l: 02-27885896 so 41: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ lP 41 TEL: 02-27883563