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~ ' ~~(~R ~.~ ' ~~ ' ~~ )} ~ ~~m a PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ~71<~ Microenvironment and Macroenvironment _ ~ ~ ~~ ~3~1~= ~ ~=R~(microenvironment);~3~3j~ ;~=~ri) ~lshit L~~ ~~ ' lE~:Pl4~:$~i~;~ $~z~P~ !l~fi~ Abbe 27~ 13i4~[~ 1 He ~~ ~ 7,I]~(macro enviromnent) ~~b~ ' Ii* ~ ~~'~q~3~1~tl~ht~eE 3~ ~~ ~~ Calm ~~ Lt7~3~ (Besch 1980; Flynn 1959; Gamble and Clough 1976; Murakami 1971; Serrano 1971) ~ ~~:~RS~ ~~l~l(~ Aloft ~35~ ~~i~(Broderson and others 1976; Schoeb and others 1982; Vesell and others 1976) I Primary Enclosures Housing ~~ 18111~ ~ Elm: ~~58t ~~ 3~ 15 lo ~:E~i~ Retrim ;~e.~V-~7~ ~~14107$~3~:~(~r~!)~J~34 ~ ~ i~3~$~ Aim do 21

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To convert square imches to square centimeters, multiply by 6.45. b From cage floor to cage top. c To convert inches to centi neters. multiply by 2.54. dLarger animals might repurre more space to meet the performance standards (see text). TABLE 2.2 Recommended Space for Rabbits, Cats, Dogs, Nonhuman Primates, and Birds Animals Weight, kg a Floor Area Animal, fl 2 b Height in Rabbits < 2 1.5 14 Up to 4 3.0 14 Up to 5.4 4.0 14 >5 , L' 2 5.0 14 Cats < 4 3.0 24 >4e 2 4.0 24 Dogs f <15 8.0 Up to 30 12.0 >3oe 2 24.0 Monkeysg'h (including baboons) Group I Up to 1 1.6 20 Group 2 Up to 3 30 30 Group 3 Up to 10 4 3 30 Group 4 Up to 15 6 0 32 Group 5 Up to 25 8.0 36 Group6 Upto30 10.0 46 Group7 >30 15.0 46 Apes (Pongidae) h Groupl Upto20 10.0 55 Group2 Up to 35 15.0 60 Group3 >35' 25.0 -84 PigeonsJ 0.3 QuailJ 0.25 ChickensJ <0.25 0.25 Up to 0.5 0.50 Up to 1.5 1.00 - Up to 3.0 2.00 >3 Be 2 3.00 26

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TABLE 2.2 Continued a To convert kilograms to pounds, multiply by 2.2. bTo convert square feet to square meters, multiply by 0.09. CFrom cage floor to cage top. d To convert inches to centimeters, multiply by 2.54. eLarger animals might require more space to meet performance standards (see text) f These recommendations might require modification according to body conformation of individual animals and breeds. Some dogs, especially those toward upper limit of each weight range, might require additional space to ensure compliance with the regulations of the Animal Welfare Act. These regulations (CFR 1985) mandate that the height of each cage be sufficient to allow occupant to stand in "comfortable position" and that the minimal square feet of floor space be equal to 'mathematical square of the sum of the length of the dog in inches (measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail) plus 6 mches; then divide the product by 144." gCallitrichidae, Cebidae, Cercopithecidae, and Papio. Baboons might requrre more height than other monkeys. hFor some species (e.g., Brachyteles, Hylobates, Symphalangus, Pongo, and Pan), cage height should be such that an animal cam, when ffilly extended, swing from the cage ceiling without having its feet touch the floor. Cage-ceiling design should enhance brachiatrng movement. Apes weighing over 50 kg are more effectively housed en permanent housing of masonry, concrete, and wire-panel structure than m conventional caging. Cage height should be sufficient for the animals to stand erect with therr feet on the floor. 27

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TABLE 2.3 Reconunended Space for Cormnonly Used Fann Animals Floor Area Aniinal, ft 2 b Anirnals Enclosure Weight, kg a Sheep and Goats I <25 10.0 Up to 50 15.0 2-5 > 50C 20.0 < 25 8.5 Up to 50 12.5 >50c 17.0 >5 < 25 7.5 Up to 50 11.3 >50c 15.0 Swine I <15 8.0 Up to 25 12.0 Up to 50 15.0 Up to 100 24.0 Up to 200 48.0 2-5 >200C 2 60.0 <25 6.0 Upto50 100 Up to 100 20.0 Up to 200 40 0 >5 >200C 2 52.0 <25 6.0 Up to 50 9.0 Up to 100 18.0 Up to 200 36.0 >200C 2 48.0 28

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TABLE 2.3 Continued Ann als Enclosure Weight, kg a Cattle 1 Floor Area Anrmal, fit 2 b <75 2-5 >5 Horses Ponies 1 -4 >4/Pen Up to 200 Upto350 Up to 500 Upto650 >650C <75 Up to 200 Up ~o 350 Up to 500 Up to 650 >65o '75 Up to 200 Up to 350 Up to 500 Up to 650 >65oc '200 >200C 24.0 48.0 72.0 96.0 124.0 2144.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 105.0 2120.0 18.0 36.0 54.0 72.0 93.0 2 108.0 144.0 72.0 60.0 2 72.0 a To convert kilograms to pounds, multiply by 2.2. b To convert square feet to square meters, multiply by 0.09. c Larger animals might requn e more space to meet performance standards (see text). TABLE 2.4 Recommended Dry-Bulb Temperatures for Common Laboratory Ann als Dry-Bulb Temperature Ann al C OF Mouse, rat, hamster, gerbil, gun ea pig 18-26 64-79 Rabbit 16-22 61 -72 Cat, dog, nonhuman primate 18-29 64-84 Farm amrmals and poultry 16-27 61 -81 29

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An; 2,3 l~1~,~ ~ =.'e~ bitt ~ ~~ ~ ~ p1 f~i~l~(Larson and Hegg 1776; Midwest plan service 1987) o Temperature and Humidity ~f~,~7~i~f~ik.i~ ~ ~'~7~ IBM~fii~ ~1~$~1~j (>29.4~C ~ 85F)~(~)(<4.4C~40 F)~ ~ ~~.~ i~(Gordon 990)~[~;? 1~ ~!~;~1;~ ~ L1~Ef I ~ ~~3!~!~i~'lt~ft ~ ~~:~t~~e~ ~i~il~H~(Garrard and others 1974; Gordon 1993: Pennycuik 1967) I} ft~=-~fl(~34!~;14 |~;1~.~.3~ ~ OCR for page 20
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