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>t~nil-l~i'll Olik Oth~At1_1~1 L ~ ~ R11~: }> ~ 7 (Drozdowicz et al. 1990; Jelinek 1971: Lardi et al. 1982: f'rasad ct al. J978; Sanhouri et al. 1989; Tuli et al. 1995; Wallace 1976). 1~RD7~;~: ~ ~ ~ 1_, tJr to ~V'~-.;'~/'~J.~"~",': h iT$)l~:hO~t7~t-~-l], Th~ 2-F)~l~S-~1~3~. IBM /:tfal~ it ~ to, ~ ~ t~ ;>, 7 ~ t7 ratSTr~, ~ ~ ~> ~It ~ ~ t l,'tiblXIJ3~ d;>at, ~ ~ L'13:7'1} ~/ 1~9 (~)~l ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ J: 7. 2 ~~)(JJ~75~:E~g~bj`:lPlu,.~l- ~ A, him, iT~tJg~h/`Jl:RTt~ /~r'i: 374 611. !~RI~SnIfrin.~2.~: ~ Abut -, ~~f)J~I_~(li ,rrFq r.~`lt < 3~ ~ - : 2 74' <, i t2 /i ~ ~Tf'l~J~ ~'~.; ~ ~ ~ jr.i J.~f* <' 6, ft~ ~ Th~-~ ~) ~ ~ ~.~ < _ ~ t,$ ~ 6. ~I_ r,JJ~ '~ ~9I-~SiJf~ t2~- $f rJ ~,~ii, Bordetelle hronchisepticald:, 7it r~tg:~7~ L 13:~- < ~ 8, ~i~=c z ~ I:l]~.)~Pl-P~i~.~;~ 2~ (Manning et al. 1984). )~71J? l'<~.fitll:~(~1i~i~.), T7l)h~lRlk-~ - P~. i~T~lr41J~-~ ~i~ 1~. ~ (~? t6X3~.-: S3~l ~ f~lJ ~ /~3JPW~ nn i~simian hemorrhagic fever (Palmer et al. 1968) ~;O:3ti~;~;~*~!P>7 (Hirsch et al 1991; Murphey G>rb et al. 1986) It, T7 ) hIZ./ /] f;~Jilt~-~6t tt:~ ~t`. T-,T~ild:~ti l6. Il~l :~.~k`_~11 ~K: ~ ~ih1~< :, Xlli-9,3 Pr ~ ~ :~. ~ ~ ~ r~j/,-, t75-~ :. f~ll:,i' Herpesvirus tamarir us I t I) ~ ~'iU Sairriri sciureus /: f; ~ ItJr''~ ~ ~ b~, 3 +~7PA otus trivirgatus ( Hunt and Melendez 1966) .i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t: ~? ~ ~$ ~ I) ~Saguirus oedipus, S rigrKollis (llolmes et al. 1964; Melnick et al. 1964) 1:1ilX~Pj5i.-~3~ iL ~ t_ :, t. ;~c ht -~< ~ ~ 7 ~ ~F~rfi< }, ~ 7 2. tPh~JJ ~ ~fit t ^~l ~ r,~ b. ~:Er~jb/~t~;:t /]', I-RJ -~1O/~lLS3piti~t\~) Lti . Sf~J<~. 7, hP~i~1lik-~4l~717~, 7~hrF~. 93t\ Pasteurella multocida, ~hhF~itP>o Cercopithecire herpesvirus 1 (IH?. Herpesvirus simiae) ji ..t ll'7'? ~Mycopla ma hyotneu11~0riael ~ l~-.~.l 6. 62

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},,~~ ~r-,6cl~/ ~~1 ~ ~ Jv~.-~h :~5't 7~ t7~f TV! ~ t~ ~ t]:3~*1~:; 45 7~. ~ hll~ ! tit~,i:~{lii~4~~1_~iK~=bO~, ~ l~<2~SiT~~I~~il; (polymerase chain reaction: PCR) 1_ at 7~ DNA Or I. EibJ*~iii~'; It's ~ ,p:,r~.l'~_~:,<~l~, ~hb~-'~)Z~ ~ l:'. -!T~i11-F*~ ~ "47 I) ~>. l+5l:il~.l:(J< 11k 'L~,~lk1ll:~, It~l~l434ir747l~7~ hash j r .i is, ~ rr Ditty t7)'}>~ (Nicklasetal.1943). flAJ/~J:h~ll] ;~ ~ie-t7~-I], m~3~Miii~ (mouse-antibody-production: MAP) =ii~t!~. 7 ~ ~*i=lRAP-~IQ~-4~47~?~~*i=!EHAP~> fiEh: (de Souza and Smith 1999; NRC l99lc) :t~G~ir~lza fR'i -ij-L~i~. ~q~ ~_i)', ~,~/j~> jMq it~ii~t in id ilk 1: ~ ~)dih~0'~bil~r iii 4: !:1_ at < it.-~;) hi}. 'I ti-~.Rti-~ (AWAY "him, ~=9j~', ~~bj~ ~I(j,i~,UR,), _hG~: IRISES 1-li ~ ~ Awls, ~r77~)I;q~i:< 3J]~)~il- ~ ~ ~ . ;: 6 6~1~$~--~6 :~_; ~ ', ~rl~1~- it_/~ bestir l_ lie lo lJ led Lt 7D~ (Broun and Schofield 1994: 1':-. -.;n et al. 993). 1) 6 t_ :,l+.~ik t`~ 6~h9~-i-iTTiil: ~ (_ ~ ~ A, t.,i~ J~rhOt-i!kY)~), to i, - ijjRi/lf:Tt;ND: i~iiir!.~*. i Mini fl:~ht3~q:~1l~ tow, 61~'phinrfr JJ$~ jr~l>~t~il:3`,~1 ~~> - 6~4iin i * (Brown and Schofield ]994). 6 l., iFiikeT4 LilF:~7i01~3~ir~l-~l~t-t . ii-~Trt-J:~ '~i ~~bi~l:~*~.@.t.~h*Jirj~lt, t~l~rni1i-3 it- 3 jl*2J:~>t~6 Oh: t~ (Klementetal.1987). t t L., l~q-~fit.~ti-~3-i~13~/_-~t *fir 64

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4Q~I~'~ I_lXi1- to I / t ~ bow jock--- ~ ~ t~ (Schonholtz 1976). f I[j;T$1_ A ~ ~ T'fl*' ;, ~ IH-$I)4( Tot': (Belkin 1992: McWilliams 1976). (tt~;htbi-y~TU hq~ |,., 2'O~ Throw )~ ~ tact, ffqolll~: J: ~ ~ sack 6. lilT~~T .Fj~F (Hofnnann 1979) 7i Y. .~.~-I_N]~P~i. fate f~)i~llliN'J]u ~i'4~t_M`T~-l-lT]~li~i (Chamberlain and Houang 1984; Pereira et al 1990: Schonlloltz 1976), 2~E~tT~t ~r~777l~ili~ (Kagan 1992b) ~ ~tV;'~l.lj~'T (Ayliffe 1991; Kagan 1992a; Hitter and Marmion 1987: Schofield 1994; Whyte 1988) ~ Y t , ~E, hi f tic it ~~ i :, i~ih~llit~b~li~_~ (Schofield1994). ~ F?W7~:tJ;:~7~3t] R~xti, ~;~6t6~6lj-~-~1~; ~ ~ . t ~ ~ ~ 7 ~ ~ ~ ' ~ . 7~ 4/t t ti `) ~4i li!; ~i r t ~ t ~ ~ ~i ~: t. ~ ~ ~ r r7 Z~ (Berg l993) . ~it4k) f l:"r~i)$:ib ~jlJ l ttiJb r ~ :)~i!~Hli :: iF. if t 1_1~ 6. ililt~f t/l t t~m Hil l-~(i~i7\t `~f :~7.1~-~-~l ~ . 7~ ~> r~ t_ `~(~`f~i'~4J~.t:-~ ~ ~. t_, jt.r~ 1-7fl ;~il]7jifl1,r:~J: ~ !~ ;~ (Rutala 1990). 75~r~tl~hil:? t ~1t ~ ~ ~9 ~ ~ ~ ~ 19$ i:'=itr l~tti-i~- ~ t, ~A;~.~.~t ~~;t~ t1. 4>t~1:1t, 11'-~T~il~l7~0~!~_oJ~:~u iti f rtTI;. ~r.~ Ei b':o) t_~ t-~fl~i :> t t li~ji-;5l:Pj: ~lillit: ~ ~ ~' :~. t: ~ i. Y ~) T.ffl ~i ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I a) ~ `1 ~ ~ ~ ) ~ 1~ ~ ! ~i ~ ~ ~ ~) <, ]- i,Rr ~ I t i ~t i f ~.TIt l# ~ ~ 1', |~7~ritl~1t~'t:~t_lt.lilt (AOiN 1982; Bartley 1993). 1tiRZ-J:~< t3:. fT~q~i::fTta) ~ t~9l_q ~) Z~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :~) ~t ~ ;~6 f~m~l~l; ~1~ TfT~q~_~t, rl7l(7)iFti~F7t)~ ~b~tth t/~ ~/~. 73~4~_ 7 l) :/70~i, ~ ivl'~R,]~bi Elit_~;o 4iR:.~-)t'J:b'. 7$fl-F- T~q~Ih~_i~t< 2.T,r.t h ~ E ~ 7 i) /7~I0~l ~ (, ~)iZ ~ /1 69'( ~g~ti J~tq~ O) ~ ~ 7, ~ ~ ~ ~tRJ*3~47i~4~X,Tt ~ r~f~ ~ ~ (t ~ ~ ~ bi ~ ~ 5. Il.~T;f~i.~ L~_ ~ t), I4;:bf~i! t:712~;1~6 q4~7,+7=t t; t-0f~i~l~T~ ktll$q ~O~ (Dardai and lleavner 1987), ~hl t ~ t) talt~:~. ~ 6. 7:fTb97h~ ~ ~ ~|~| t~,7~_ ~ ~ <~/X ~. It ~i~b fr~q~t .~_ W~t'b4Y ~ b>~_~('r~=.fi~ h: ~ t . f ~x' - 7 1_ ~ ~ 2. ~liR~ill`~9i~:b`~b'~J 'i~nhYbOl-~4~fitiflN3~libiJ> ~ (Beamer 1972; Bradfield et al. 1992; Cunliffe- ieamer 1990; Waynforth 1980' 1987), Ut_bi::, i-s~i~I)~lS;~f,~j~r'~hijl~b>t Wh~. t-,J`~iijtJJ~!J~. ~bit4 OCR for page 59
ah. 3 ~ ~L~YI~q~ ~-/~ ~ low 74 ~ ~1~1--~> ( 1}, ~~! At_, an, ~] T~q`-~; ~ ~ ~ low ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ at ~ a' ~ deli,> ~ Il/A ~ ~ ~ ~ a' (Brown 1994; Cunliffe Beamer 1993). It~Ji~o)5ff,~il:~1 L :, ~~I_,=.;t4Y,1~ ~ h (~3 (Cunliffe-Beamer 1983, 1993). ,~x ~ *J>~t_~l_~h<~_~1t, -I lb~l~l}, f;Ir f h`~~ ~ twirl_ l. (~ ~ . Latin l'E'P~1 ~fi- o.:~4:, JO A:, ~ ~~;h(~~Hjjr-.ll~l~rp<:, tpir~O) E-.? 1} W7' ~3~ lLL:~-~-~'~t'I ~ $5^ ~ ~ ~i < . 1~hir~bi~0J ~ ~ ~ I~ ~ ~ t `0 Y.~: ll, '~.~):~ ~'`;l~l~ ~,lh*$ fL i . flir~4 Jrf O+J>.;lfi F] J)~ )~ -: 1-. tLir~1ul)L~(- ji (t ~l~t)~.r~,! 2'JAt~ ~: ~ - ~ IJ ~ >': \0~.~. 11 ~ t`!~Ji)]~)J11~: ilF~rl~l~l~ O ~t:i, ~q~, Ll~r[r7 ti.4iE L ~ i~ ~ t-1L' ~D~t lo~lIl~llI~c(Lt-~bi~ ~ ~~r~! ~ O 9, iTTi~&t-~KT~ ~ T, ~ 6. i L~Tr~. ~7~ Dl-D~fit Ti o ~T'1~ ~ t~ lo~';~ ;l>!g~l lo$~~ it~pD~~~ 7hiy.~ c1 ti~$a~~3~t_~G93 nn9~,~ (fB11 1987), f~7dj3qA1J4~l Gi)~JI~~ /PT~L67)~ti oU~ilitJ77~76 .~,- 1_ PH ."; ~ :' . ~b)~b~ E 7 ) :/ ~t;!Krkh`JI iT)~T66 ~ lo,$~4 t~ti, ~NiD j~ i~. ~Mt('~ 63.t f234~;ffl, ~43~7~i~l~ ~ ~ ;NTDib. ~' T'4i.~l\.~., 0~;~ ~J9~*~!S 5~lo 7 1 >7~x7~;l~~t;~i~ l:!+it~~& T (UI ANV 1939). ~ ~, i~'l t}C'~ Rx r7 g~ ~ ~ b ~: ~ ~ ~ [] ~ ~ ~ ~ l:, ~.~ 7~ ~. ~ ~ T': l: ~ ~ ~ )~ ~ ~ 1~ ~ ~ ' Ul+~i~l75~. ]~h~l+, .~!h9~:l~ Ll.~:7~-':,i.~, ~)lo ~ht_ ~ . 3~h~ :, ~ L it`-J~:Hb)Jl+' ~-, < i~7ri T-~. 4~3Ir~$0i8,k`- O -,~3~ OCR for page 59
~~+J'$~ml-1~-l Hat,, ~11~6, i~ti~7it't, ~ .~ it id ~B~-hi ~ ~ 4t 7 ~ ~ ~ <, Elm )~b) l~~ 7f~.iib ~;G)ti~ ~ Jew, `_ lo ~3,t~G~ ~~ ~ Ah:, mini ~ ~ a. li~ql~l 3-tr him ah l+, Aft 7~n~i~t~:t`,ui ~ ~ ~ 45 id 7 f,f,r~ hq ~ Ad. 2: ~ 3_13:, tit$~ 61i' 1_~, qr~h7~572~1~. a,~ ~ ~ *. ' - J on i, !, )-~q~ . 'C ~ . . $~;1_T q~JIR~b'=~bj~3~4: 7 Ian ion 'Cal' *Fiji 73it$~3-.ttl6~lt AL', ~~ro3~EkI~1~i: It,-~75f~0~i~5it$J9l ~Ate~'r7:~. "' _f'~Gfht ~.fl:ii't'r~)vInTn&g,+ to L- ~i~im~hlo~M t~h-o !!, Phi 7= <136t;~; ;~ j;~ ~ 7 33hH5~31, J~f;~ T~.~;~=FItth12~~>t_~ icily, f~Aq 8;~j~lJ Oh.. L't_ti-~' C/ ~I_~h~l)~f ~IJi~. Li)~' iLi~;t~qr~ih i3j12 G~13~i oh~o.ta~ itl~;g1~7rh] (~ii J r - ~ ) Lou 'I 17~-O) i-'1fl`rR) 1_, HI ~1~;~P: ~ ~ ~ E] hi -C ~ ~ >- ~ term it ~ (Klein 1987) . :f ~q~ ~ t_ lo ;c ~ IJt~,73~ h ~ f ~ 7 '45!~: j-itn- l_~;iih~ittl~hU . c ~ ~~xh~ ~ r ~ ~ ~~) 7i~ ~ ~ J7.~l bell ~ < this ~t . U~~ R~i~ql~7~_~h !3~1k(ffqi JO C~;~ ill Em ') C.~ ~fk 68

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~ 3 ~ ~~ bet, rot t`_~Z'~-5~. A ~ iN:im) ~ ~ > 1-,J, t~!;ffl~rAll; ~ `-~iNq ASHY ~ At_ ,- V`~:tt Jump) ,~, I ~ God (NRC 1992). ri;j~Aq, IBM hq. F 7 ;~ ~ ~ 1' ffI_ he ~ :, )~ ~ ~ ~r b9~4z~ ~ hi- ah i _ Cubist' (NRC 1992; Spinelli 1990). nabs 1~ A_ J: 7 :_, i~lltriNd ti 1~=~;-ff~ ~ ~ to ~ vow. 'AGE t-~i~ 2; ft t_~)J~l-)rUt, For mat d>~_l~l7~ (htTE'~:~t~ {g v), ,- I -, c_a7-' nag lit .t_t~--g~. rh1;~r3tl: ~!~ ,, it tlt_~-Z~Ct chat_, j$~.ti str'Sq! imps t, chat .r l3 ~ ~ ~ TV fr ~ rat ~ t~ ~ (NRC 1992; Van Sluyters and Oberdorfer 1991). 'blot ~lifi$~i'iitfl:~~ ~~JJ ~ it, A, o m.5i;~iifi'~ rtr~;i-r~3t (~ 9, 199347~? 1) Irma f~J<7k~nJii~*~ 1993 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia (AVMA 1993; 7~ t~ IBM ?) 4Ilrj)~) ~ it -) - i ~ i, {h>.~o~7h(~-l7, Multi), E<~:flO~th~-~ Gt ~ Fit t~i~J~'F~ ~ hey i hi' ,_ lot Ajar ~ ~~ ];'~i~l\th), ~ t_to~t~t75-~ ~ shad t~srp=i~hi~~ I~ElL- ho 2' -, A', At' r I. him lid. .Fsif~t~ id, ~ '-I). if Chum ~'t_f~:~:'diq~, 7~Ufi'iJ&~I. ii ~ ~,'~ ,: ~3 ~ Z ~ sew A' _. ail ~ ~4 A) 6, ~h~'i~,P,~t,~I~-~`', ~~l,-~4q. i~--.~1 .. : I .5~ red, . J -) 7o1 4dlJ$fI!q7(hk-tZl~! Lee 3k,66~ i:hs,l;h>~;t66 r,-, i t,~4;f~.J . Hi d ~~~J~<~x~~rqr~q~ -Otto to t, ~~j~f~1~7bblZ ~ ~ - :' ~ --. 3i~i5l IF.~r~. Am--, .t i; <, - i. ;~ ]: - A, (h1~ht.A.i~fl) EKE ~ ii; Ah. rho F,i7~1-. 7~3tF7b] ~ if At ho- <, !~l~RiD2:j fain - hi hi thi<6Z. 69

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1 fL~i~f ~o)^rlT ~ WHO l_~;l:lt :Ti f l ~~L~~f~)~,f ~?~r~ ~ ~ ~7~. v~ ,~ ~ 7Elide~ i.5Tl . . 'Ian,, ,~r~r,rli,lit 1), 7 I r +>r';~,t',l ~ f I'm :.T,r. `~>lfr<~.r~/jc~-~r,~lT:~I mar- (ALMA 1993). r~7~,~` fame i ~~,fili~`'f if fly. giJI4)JJ~)ii7~.~R~fIf l V(~l.5~ik1~9 (A ~ r _~W, Stiff 56 rf~f~lP.fi.~rr, Or f ) ti, frfl~bf~ji~ (7~f1tfif~, Ill ad., A) ~lt.~.-Z~. ok- 1 ~ ~ I be l, ~Le,~` J: -, ~ at, AL g:h'JI~ ~ ~ 7-i~q ~ loom ~ ~ Rio (N i NAZI little P~4 j rg-Jj(f,rr ~ r; f J- 0, ~ ! i _. i Do, j * ~c. I o t.~6 ~7E~r~ilo. ~SP tf5hdr3~f:~=F 33f.1: ~LiLt_~-ti, ~-~9h'9:arh~1: ff (t-'*'tfit~ j -~-: fl-~t~ (th`itG~ t tG~ V, irr7~t'':iifffX t__ f tr~J~ ~ ct 6~3'/~i', ~flifJJ7)72t~i:4'7.lZ~. i 11i~f ~,hI:Yli~1:13~1t9-~;~:t if, }>~L' ~ ~ rt~:;>~E ~5.,h~fl:r~k~t~u~~ (~ ~3;;J;/3~>f~f:f3, ''Jt l9.bi5. Tf t~{liG~)to t~t {o~ ~;Vt~ t~~Ci~l~fI'Jf-lill 0 j t~~chlif~ lt(i~ ~ fi_~tiL~ t t ~ ~T'it-~fto'C~i j'; < ~ ~t ~'d5 s. Arluke A. 1990 Uneasinesc atnong Lthoratory technicians l.ab Anim 19(4) 20 39 AORN (Association cf Operating Rmin~ Nur\es) 1982 Recommended p~actices lor trafOc pattems in the surgical suite Assoc Oper. Roozn Nu~s. J 15(4):750 758. ASR IAcademy of Surgical Resenrch) 1989 Guidelh~es for training in surgical research in anknals 1 In\est Surg 2 263-268 Ayliffe. G. A J. 19YI Rolc of the enxTrmm~ent of the opomth~g suite hl curgicai wound infeethn~ Re~ bd' DB I l(Suppl l()f S8()()-804 AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Associalion) 1993 Report of the AVMA punel on eotham~ sia J. Am Vet Med. Assoc 202(2):229 249 Bartley J. M. 1993 Environn~ental control Oper;ting rnmn ai; qunlity Today's O R. N'ur\e )5(5) 11 18 Beame~ T. C 1972 Pathological changes associated with oxahan transplantation Pp 104 in The 441h Annual Repm-t uf the J ;cksm~ L'bm ;iory. Bar H ;;bor Maine Jackson Laboratory Relk~n N 1 1992 Barrier nn;;e~imls. thci' inCk~cncc on ~u~gical wound infections Assoc Oper Roo~nNh~rs J.55(6) 1S21 152g Berg J 1993 Sterilization Pp 124 129 in Textf ook of Small AnUnrl Surgery. 2nd cd D Slatter cd. Philadelphia W. B Saunders Bradheld J P. T. R. Schachtman R M McL.aughlin nnd E K Steffen 1992 BehaGoral and physiological effects nf inapparcnt wound infection h~ ~ah l.ah A'~im Sci 42(6) 572 57 f 70

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.i.t;tf })4ttt 0) trk ~ ~ 1LL ~ I ~ ~ Z~ f L t Waynfc th H. B. 1980. Experimental and Surgical Technique in the Rat. London: Academic Press Wa~ntoth.H B B)R7 Standardsofsmterytoretpcmnculul mimds Pp 3LL-312~ Lnbo.to~ An m t s An hnroducthm fl>r New Experimenterc A A. Tttffery cd. Chichester Wiley- Whyte 1988 The role of clothh~g and drnpcs in the operalmg room. J. Hosp Inf I I (Suppl C):2- Wingfield W. E. 1979 Surgical Principles Pp 1-3 in Small Animal Surgery An Atlas of Operative Techmqucs W. E. Wingheld and C. A. Rawlings eds. Philadelphia W B Saunders Wolfle 1 L 1985 I.aboratory animal technicians: Their role in stress ~eductimr and human-cmn- pamon ammal bonding Vet Clin N Am Sm dl AnUn Pract 15(2):449 454 Wrigh . E M. K L himcellu. and J F. Wnodsmr 1985 Anhnal pain: Evaluotimr and comrol L.ah 74