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Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children Appendix Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Bernard Lo (Chair) is a professor of medicine and director of the Program in Medical Ethics at University of California in San Francisco and a practicing general internist. He directs the Greenwall Faculty Scholars in Bioethics Program and is a member of the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Data Safety Monitoring Board for NIH-sponsored clinical trials in diabetes. He formerly was a member of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission and the Data Safety Monitoring Board for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group at NIH. He also directed the national coordinating office for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative to Strengthen the Patient-Provider Relationship in a Changing Health Care Environment, and he chaired the End-of-Life Committee convened by the American College of Physicians. He is a former member of the Board of Directors of the American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics and the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. He has written extensively on such issues as decisions about life-sustaining interventions, decision making for incompetent patients, physician-assisted suicide, ethical issues regarding HIV infection, and the doctor-patient relationship in managed care. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and serves on the IOM Council and on the Report Review Committee of the National Academies. John Adgate is an associate professor in the Division of Environmental Health Sciences at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. His research focuses on improving exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies by documenting the magnitude and variability of human exposure to air
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Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children pollutants, pesticides, metals, and allergens. He has written more than 40 research articles and book chapters on exposure assessment, risk analysis, and children’s environmental health. He has served on many science advisory panels of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, exploring technical and policy issues related to residential exposure to pesticides, metals, and implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. He has also served as an elected councilor of the International Society of Exposure Analysis, and he is the recipient of its Joan M. Daisey Outstanding Young Scientist Award. Dr. Adgate received a BA degree in biology from Calvin College, an MS degree in environmental science from the School of Public Health of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a PhD degree in environmental health granted jointly by the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and Rutgers University. Gordon Cavanaugh is a former partner in the Washington, DC, law firm of Reno & Cavanaugh, PLLC, where he served, among other things, as general counsel to the Council of Large Public Housing Authorities from 1981 to 2002. He is the former chairman of CHF, International (formerly known as the Cooperative Housing Foundation), the founding executive director of the Housing Assistance Council, and a former board member of the Housing Research Foundation. He served as administrator of the Farmers Home Administration in the U.S. Department of Agriculture between 1977 and 1981. Previously, he chaired the Philadelphia Housing Authority and the Philadelphia Housing Development Corporation, served as the City of Philadelphia’s Commissioner of Licenses and Inspections, and had a private and public law practice. He is a member of the District of Columbia Bar Association (D.C. Affairs Committee) and a former member of the University of Pennsylvania Law Review. He graduated cum laude from Fordham University and received his law degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Giselle Corbie-Smith is an associate professor in the Department of Social Medicine and Internal Medicine at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill and director of UNC’s Program on Health Disparities at the Sheps Center for Health Services Research. Before coming to UNC, she was a faculty member in the Department of Medicine at Emory University/Grady Memorial Hospital. She is currently the principal investigator on a National Institutes of Health Research Career Development Award and a Robert Wood Johnson Minority Medical Faculty Development Award to examine the patient-specific and investigator-specific factors that influence participation in research. Dr. Corbie-Smith has dedicated her academic career to understanding the health of minority and underserved communities, especially with regard to access to care and the influence of culture, race, ethnicity, and social class on health. Her research focuses on efforts to
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Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children address African American participation in research. She received an MD degree from Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Brenda Eskenazi (Board Liaison) is a professor of maternal and child health and epidemiology at the University of California at Berkeley. She is a neuropsychologist and epidemiologist whose long-standing research interest has been on the effects of toxicants—including lead, solvents, environmental tobacco smoke, dioxin, and pesticides—on human reproduction (both male and female) and child development. She is the principal investigator and director of a National Institutes of Health and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of the Center for Excellence in Children’s Environmental Health Research (the “CHAMACOS” Project), which investigates the pathways and health effects of pesticide exposure in farmworkers and their children and develops interventions to prevent future exposure. She is also the principal investigator on two projects on endocrine disruption, one investigating the reproductive health of a cohort of women exposed to high levels of dioxin and another examining persistent and nonpersistent endocrine disrupting pesticides. Dr. Eskenazi is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology and is on the editorial boards of several journals. She has contributed widely to the field of children’s environmental health, including the Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Women’s Health, the World Health Organization’s Tobacco-Free Initiative’s report on environmental tobacco smoke, and the United States-Vietnam Committee on the Human Health and Environmental Exposures of Agent Orange and Dioxin in Viet Nam. Alan R. Fleischman is a senior advisor at the New York Academy of Medicine, and a clinical professor of pediatrics and of epidemiology and population health at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He also currently serves as chair of the Federal Advisory Committee and ethics advisor to the National Children’s Study at the National Institute of Child and Health Development of National Institutes of Health. Dr. Fleischman was a founding member of the American Academy of Pediatrics National Committee on AIDS and a member of the National Human Research Protections Advisory Committee for the Office of Human Research Protections in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). He is currently a member of many advisory groups, including the New York State Governor’s Task Force on Life and the Law (Bioethics Commission) and he is a consultant to the March of Dimes where he is cochair of the National Bioethics Committee. Fernando A. Guerra is the director of Public Center for Environmental Health of the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, clinical professor
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Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children of pediatrics at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio, and adjunct professor of public health at Brooks Air Force Base School of Aerospace Medicine. He has been active with local, national, and international forums on a variety of health issues, which include improving access to health care for migrant children; the development and implementation of a centralized immunization registry/tracking system; the integration of public health into managed care systems; and community-based programs for prevention of child abuse and adolescent pregnancies. Dr. Guerra is a member of the Children’s Environmental Health Institute, the Board of Trustees of the Urban Institute, the New York Academy of Medicine, the Federal Advisory Committee for the National Children’s Study, the Bioethics Committee for March of Dimes, and the Institute of Medicine. Dale Hammerschmidt is an associate professor of medicine in hemotology and oncology at the University of Minnesota. His clinical practice centers around hematologic malignancies, refractory autoimmunity, and blood clotting disorders. He has been involved in regulatory affairs and research ethics at Minnesota for many years, and he served for several years as director of education in human subjects protection. His interest in research ethics developed “in the trenches,” dealing with the problems of consent in the face of devastating new diagnoses and dealing with the “therapeutic misconception” in early trials involving desperate patients. In addition to his work in research ethics, Dr. Hammerschmidt’s scholarship has centered on the tension among privacy statutes, patient expectations, ethical norms, and researchers’ interests. He serves as editor in chief of the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. He has received the Watson Award and the Medal of the Portuguese Society for Intensive Care Medicine and has been named to fellowship in the American College of Physicians. Patricia King is the Carmack Waterhouse professor of law, medicine, ethics, and public policy at the Georgetown University Law Center and an adjunct professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. She is a member of the American Law Institute and the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the Hastings Center. Her work in the field of bioethics has included service on the Advisory Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the former U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the Ethics, Legal and Social Issues Working Group of the Human Genome Project. She is a board member of the National Partnership of Women and Families, chair of the Board of Trustees of Wheaton College, and vice chair
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Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children of the Kaiser Family Foundation. Her professional experience before joining the Law Center faculty in 1973 was primarily in the civil rights field; she was the deputy director of the Office of Civil Rights and Special Assistant to the chair of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. She also served as a Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. David H. Krantz is a professor of psychology and statistics at Columbia University. He previously chaired the Department of Statistics and was active in the leadership and administration of the Earth Institute at Columbia, which led to a number of ongoing research collaborations on climate-related and hazard-related decisions. Prior to joining Columbia, Dr. Krantz served as the head of the Human Information Processing Research Department at Bell Laboratories and taught at the University of Michigan. Dr. Krantz’s current research focuses on decision theory and the foundations of probability and statistics, including how people use technical information (especially probabilistic information) in decision making and in decision making with multiple goals. His publications include a three-volume work on the foundations of measurement (co-authored with Duncan Luce, Patrick Suppes, and Amos Tversky) and publications on approaches to measurement, theory of evidence, and related issues in decision making. Bruce P. Lanphear is the Sloan professor of children’s environmental health and the director of the Cincinnati Children’s Environmental Health Center at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati. He has conducted numerous epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials of environmental hazards, including dust control and soil abatement to prevent childhood lead exposure and HEPA-CPZ air cleaners to reduce children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. He is the principal investigator for a 5-year study at the—funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency—Children’s Environmental Health Center on fetal and early childhood exposures to prevalent environmental neurotoxins, including lead, alcohol, pesticides, mercury, PCBs, and environmental tobacco smoke. He is currently conducting a randomized controlled trial to test the safety and efficacy of housing repairs to reduce childhood lead exposure and residential injuries in 400 children who are being followed from birth. Mary Ellen O’Connell (Study Director) is a senior program officer in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE) of the National Research Council, where she also serves as study director for the Committee on Standards of Evidence and the Quality of Behavioral and
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Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children Social Science Research. In her three and a half years with DBASSE, she has been the study director of the projects that produced Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility and Children’s Health, the Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health. Previously at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), she spent 8 years in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), including service as director of state and local initiatives. During her tenure in ASPE, she focused on data, research, and policy related to homelessness and community-based health decision-making. She received a BA degree with distinction from Cornell University and an MA degree in the management of human services from the Heller School at Brandeis University. Jacqueline Patterson is peer consultation and review program manager and also vice president of Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA), a nonprofit organization dedicated to the best use of toxicity information for risk assessment. Ms. Patterson has developed and managed databases for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and TERA, has written and reviewed numerous reports on risk assessment and related topics, and developed training courses and materials for various audiences. Recent projects include developing peer consultation procedures for risk assessment; an evaluation of the ethical conduct of 15 human pesticide studies for private companies; development of a framework and approach to characterize the effectiveness and risk from use of nonlethal weapons for the Department of Defense Joint Nonlethal Weapons Directorate and development of TERA’s international toxicity estimates for risk database, which was added to the National Library of Medicine’s TOXNET system in 2004. Previously, Ms. Patterson worked for the EPA as the integrated risk information system (IRIS) coordinator in Cincinnati, managing IRIS development and support activities. Ms. Patterson is a member of the Society for Risk Analysis and served as president of the Ohio chapter. She serves on the editorial board for the Journal of Children’s Health. She holds an MS degree in environmental science from Miami University. Peggy Shepard is executive director and cofounder of West Harlem Environmental Action, Inc. (WE ACT), New York’s first environmental justice organization created to build community power to improve environmental health, protection and policy in communities of color which operates in partnership with the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University. Ms. Shepard received the 2005 Children’s Environmental Health Excellence Award from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the 2003 Heinz Award for the Environment from the Heinz Foundation. Ms. Shepard was the first female elected chair of the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council to the EPA, and she is cochair of the Northeast
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Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children Environmental Justice Network. She is a former member of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council of the National Institutes of Health and of the Environmental Justice Advisory Committee to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Ms. Shepard is a coinvestigator of the Columbia Children’s Environmental Health Center and community partner of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Center for Environmental Health in Northern Manhattan at Columbia. A former journalist, she is the principal investigator on NIEHS grants to address ethical issues of environmental health research and community consent and to foster communications and partnerships between researchers, clinicians, and communities on environmental health education and translational research. Michael A. Stegman is the Duncan MacRae ’09 and Rebecca Kyle MacRae professor of public policy, planning, and business at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, chair of the Department of Public Policy, and director of the Kenan Center for Community Capitalism in the Kenan-Flagler Business School. Previously he served as the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). He is a fellow of the Urban Land Institute and a member of the board of directors of the Initiative for a Competitive Inner City and of the One Economy Corporation. He is a past member of the Affordable Housing Advisory Council of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), the advisory board of the Brooking Institution’s Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, and is past vice president of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) and a member of APPAM’s Policy Council and Executive Committee. He has written extensively on housing and urban policy, and while at HUD, was founding editor of Cityscape. His most recent books are: Savings and the Poor: The Hidden Benefits of Electronic Banking (Brookings Institution Press, 1999) and State and Local Affordable Housing Programs: A Rich Tapestry (The Urban Land Institute, 1999). Michael Weitzman is executive director of the Center for Child Health Research of the American Academy of Pediatrics and professor and associate chair of pediatrics at the School of Medicine and Dentistry of the University of Rochester. Previously, he was pediatrician-in-chief at Rochester General Hospital and the director of the Division of General Pediatrics at the University of Rochester; director of maternal and child health for the city of Boston; and director of general pediatrics at Boston City Hospital and Boston University School of Medicine. He has conducted research and written extensively on a wide range of issues, including epidemiology, childhood lead poisoning, chronic illness, passive and prenatal exposure to ciga-
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Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children rette smoke, breast feeding, excessive school absences, the academic benefits of the School Breakfast Program, health risk behaviors, school failure, and childhood asthma. He has published more than 200 articles, chapters, books, and abstracts of scholarly work, and he is coeditor of two pediatric textbooks. Dr. Weitzman also currently serves on the National Advisory Committee of the Robert Wood Johnson Generalist Physician Faculty Scholars Program and is a former member of the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He was the 1997 recipient of the research award of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association’s Research Award and the 1998 recipient of the association’s teaching award.
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