Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management

Committee on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management Committee on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management Computer Science and Telecommunications Board NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Battelle Memorial Institute under subcontract number 189936 to a contract between the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Battelle Memorial Institute. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations and agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10037-2 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-65436-X (PDF) Cover designed by Jennifer M. Bishop. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org.

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management COMMITTEE ON USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE DISASTER MANAGEMENT RAMESH R. RAO, University of California, San Diego, Chair YIGAL ARENS, University of Southern California ART BOTTERELL, incident.com TIMOTHY X BROWN, University of Colorado, Boulder JOHN R. HARRALD, George Washington University RICHARD HOWARD, Rutgers University NANCY JESUALE, NetCity Engineering, Inc. DAVID KEHRLEIN, Environmental Science Research Institute WILLIAM MAHEU, San Diego, California, Police Department ROBIN R. MURPHY, University of South Florida ROBERT NECHES, University of Southern California MASANOBU SHINOZUKA, University of California, Irvine ELLIS STANLEY, City of Los Angeles PETER STEENKISTE, Carnegie Mellon University GIO WIEDERHOLD, Stanford University Staff JON EISENBERG, Study Director and Senior Program Officer TED SCHMITT, CSTB Staff Consultant GLORIA WESTBROOK, Senior Program Assistant JENNIFER M. BISHOP, Program Associate

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD JOSEPH F. TRAUB, Columbia University, Chair ERIC BENHAMOU, Benhamou Global Ventures, LLC DAVID D. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CSTB Chair Emeritus WILLIAM DALLY, Stanford University MARK E. DEAN, IBM Almaden Research Center DAVID J. DEWITT, University of Wisconsin, Madison DEBORAH ESTRIN, University of California, Los Angeles JOAN FEIGENBAUM, Yale University KEVIN KAHN, Intel Corporation JAMES KAJIYA, Microsoft Corporation MICHAEL KATZ, University of California, Berkeley RANDY H. KATZ, University of California, Berkeley SARA KIESLER, Carnegie Mellon University BUTLER W. LAMPSON, Microsoft Corporation, CSTB Member Emeritus TERESA H. MENG, Stanford University TOM M. MITCHELL, Carnegie Mellon University FRED B. SCHNEIDER, Cornell University WILLIAM STEAD, Vanderbilt University ANDREW J. VITERBI, Viterbi Group, LLC JEANNETTE M. WING, Carnegie Mellon University RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Acting Director JON EISENBERG, Acting Associate Director KRISTEN BATCH, Research Associate JENNIFER M. BISHOP, Program Associate JANET BRISCOE, Manager, Program Operations RENEE HAWKINS, Financial Associate MARGARET MARSH HUYNH, Senior Program Assistant HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Scientist LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Senior Program Officer JANICE SABUDA, Senior Program Assistant GLORIA WESTBROOK, Senior Program Assistant BRANDYE WILLIAMS, Staff Assistant For more information on CSTB, see its Web site at <http://www.cstb.org>, write to CSTB, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, call (202) 334-2605, or e-mail the CSTB at cstb@nas.edu.

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management Preface Section 214 of the E-government Act of 2002 called on the Administrator of the Office of Electronic Government in the Office of Management and Budget, in consultation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), to “ensure that a study is conducted on using information technology to enhance crisis preparedness, response, and consequence management of natural and manmade disasters” (Box P.1). The section cited as a goal “to improve how information technology is used in coordinating and facilitating information on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery, while ensuring the availability of such information across multiple access channels.” In early 2005, FEMA, via a subcontract through Battelle Memorial Institute, asked the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake a two-phase study on these issues. This report culminates phase 1 of the project. CSTB established the Committee on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management, and a public workshop was held under the committee’s auspices on June 22-23, 2005. A variety of representatives of federal, state, and local government agencies, private industry, and the research community participated. The workshop agenda is given in Appendix A. Appendix B includes biographical information for committee members and staff. The committee’s goal for the workshop was to establish a base of information for its study by hearing about present and future uses of IT from the perspective of federal, state, and local disaster management officials and users together with a sampling of relevant IT research and development activities. Panelists at the workshop were given roughly 15 minutes to provide their views on a set of questions (listed by panel or topic in Appendix A) posed in advance regarding the use of information technology to enhance disaster management. They presented a range of views on the present state of the art and practice and future opportunities to harness information technology to aid in the management of natural and human-made disasters. The slides (unedited and unreviewed by the NRC) prepared by many of the speakers for use in their presentations are available from CSTB’s Web site at http://www.cstb.org. This report summarizes some of the key points made by workshop participants. In phase 2 of its study, the committee will supplement the inputs received at the workshop with information gathered at several site visits and a series of additional briefings. Phase 2 will culminate in a final report, expected in spring 2006, that provides findings and recommendations on requirements for effective use of information technology for disaster management, research and development needs and opportunities, and related research management and technology transition considerations. The committee thanks all of the workshop participants for their thoughtful presentations

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management BOX P.1 Section 214 of the E-Government Act of 2002, Public Law 107-347 SEC. 214. ENHANCING CRISIS MANAGEMENT THROUGH ADVANCED INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (a) PURPOSE.—The purpose of this section is to improve how information technology is used in coordinating and facilitating information on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery, while ensuring the availability of such information across multiple access channels. (b) IN GENERAL.— (1) STUDY ON ENHANCEMENT OF CRISIS RESPONSE.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator, in consultation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, shall ensure that a study is conducted on using information technology to enhance crisis preparedness, response, and consequence management of natural and manmade disasters. (2) CONTENTS.—The study under this subsection shall address— (A) a research and implementation strategy for effective use of information technology in crisis response and consequence management, including the more effective use of technologies, management of information technology research initiatives, and incorporation of research advances into the information and communications systems of— (i) the Federal Emergency Management Agency; and (ii) other Federal, State, and local agencies responsible for crisis preparedness, response, and consequence management; and (B) opportunities for research and development on enhanced technologies into areas of potential improvement as determined during the course of the study. (3) REPORT.—Not later than 2 years after the date on which a contract is entered into under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall submit a report on the study, including findings and recommendations to— (A) the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate; and (B) the Committee on Government Reform of the House of Representatives. (4) INTERAGENCY COOPERATION.—Other Federal departments and agencies with responsibility for disaster relief and emergency assistance shall fully cooperate with the Administrator in carrying out this section. (5) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.—There are authorized to be appropriated for research under this subsection, such sums as are necessary for fiscal year 2003. (c) PILOT PROJECTS.—Based on the results of the research conducted under subsection (b), the Administrator, in consultation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, shall initiate pilot projects or report to Congress on other activities that further the goal of maximizing the utility of information technology in disaster management. The Administrator shall cooperate with other relevant agencies, and, if appropriate, State, local, and tribal governments, in initiating such pilot projects.

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management and discussion, as well as FEMA for sponsoring the workshop, and it extends special thanks to Chip Hines at FEMA for all his help in making this project possible. While this report was being completed, Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States. In the days following the hurricane’s landfall, damage to the communications infrastructure, together with a host of other communications and information concerns, was cited by decision makers and reported on in the press as among the major challenges facing those involved in response and recovery efforts. The tragic events occurring in Katrina’s wake underscore the importance of information technology in disaster management, the interplay between technical and organizational considerations, and the contributions that research and development in these areas could make to future disaster preparedness and response. Ramesh R. Rao, Chair Committee on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Otto Doll, Bureau of Information and Telecommunications, State of South Dakota, Deborah Estrin, University of California, Los Angeles, and William “Al” Wallace, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Craig Partridge, BBN Technologies. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management Contents     SUMMARY OF REMARKS MADE BY WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS   1     Topic 1: The Critical and Evolving Role of Information Technology in Disaster Management,   2     Topic 2: Research Directions for IT in Disaster Management,   6     Topic 3: Collaboration, Coordination, and Interoperability: Pressing Issues in a Need-to-Share World,   10 Appendix A   Workshop Agenda   15 Appendix B   Biographies of Committee Members and Staff   21

OCR for page R1
Summary of a Workshop on Using Information Technology to Enhance Disaster Management This page intentionally left blank.