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Appendix C
Focus-Group Sessions

The Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century convened focus groups on Saturday, August 6, 2005, from 9 am to 4 pm. The purpose of the focus groups was to gather experts in five broad subjects—K–12 education, higher education, science and engineering research, innovation and workforce, and national and homeland security—to provide input to the committee on how the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community.

Each focus-group participant was provided background on the committee members and on other focus-group members, 13 issue papers (see Appendix D) that summarized past reports on the various topics that were discussed, and a list of recommendations gleaned from past reports and interviews with committee and focus-group members.

The charge to focus-group participants is listed in full on page 252. Essentially, each group was asked to define and set priorities for the top three actions for its subject that federal policy-makers could take to ramp up the innovative capacity of the United States. Each focus group was chaired by a member of the committee, who presented the group’s priorities to the full committee during an open discussion session. The content of those presentations is listed starting on page 254. Focus-group biographies are listed starting on page 264.



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Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions The Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Cen- tury convened focus groups on Saturday, August 6, 2005, from 9 am to 4 pm. The purpose of the focus groups was to gather experts in five broad subjects—K–12 education, higher education, science and engineering re- search, innovation and workforce, and national and homeland security—to provide input to the committee on how the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community. Each focus-group participant was provided background on the com- mittee members and on other focus-group members, 13 issue papers (see Appendix D) that summarized past reports on the various topics that were discussed, and a list of recommendations gleaned from past reports and interviews with committee and focus-group members. The charge to focus-group participants is listed in full on page 252. Essentially, each group was asked to define and set priorities for the top three actions for its subject that federal policy-makers could take to ramp up the innovative capacity of the United States. Each focus group was chaired by a member of the committee, who presented the group’s priorities to the full committee during an open discussion session. The content of those presentations is listed starting on page 254. Focus-group biographies are listed starting on page 264. 249

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251 APPENDIX C Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century: An Agenda for American Science and Technology Agenda Focus-Group Meeting August 6, 2005 Keck Center of the National Academies 500 5th Street, NW Washington, DC 9:00 Continental Breakfast Available (Room 100) 9:30 Study Overview and Charge to Focus Groups Norman Augustine, Chair, Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century 10:00 Focus Groups Meet K–12 Education Room 110 Roy Vagelos, Chair Higher Education Room 101 Chuck Vest, Chair Research Room 201 Dan Mote, Chair Innovation Room 204 Gail Cassell, Chair Security Room 105 Anita Jones, Chair 12:00 Lunch (Available in meeting rooms) 2:45 Break (Move to Room 100) 3:00 Focus Groups Report on Results of their Deliberations (Room 100) 4:00 Adjourn

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252 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM Focus Group Charge The Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Cen- tury would like to thank you for helping it in its important task to address the following questions: What are the top 10 actions, in priority order, that federal policy-makers could take to enhance the science and technology enterprise so that the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community of the 21st century? What implementation strategy, with sev- eral concrete steps, could be used to implement each of those actions? Your role, as a focus-group participant, is to help the committee, in your area of expertise: • Identify existing ideas the federal government (President, Congress, or federal agencies) could take. The ideas should not be too general—they need to be sufficiently actionable that they could be turned into congres- sional language. • Brainstorm new ideas. • Evaluate all ideas. • Prioritize all ideas to propose to the committee the top 3 actions the federal government could take so that the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community of the 21st century. Since there are five focus groups, we expect a total of 15 prioritized recommendations to result from the focus-group session, which will be presented and discussed at a plenary session at the end of the day. These 15 recommendations would then be used by the committee as input to its decision-making process as it comes up with a “top 10” list on Sunday. Each focus group is chaired by a committee member and has a staff member with expertise in the issue and a science and technology (S&T) policy fellow (graduate student) to assist them. The staff is available to put together any action list that is produced (no summary of the discussion is planned). In evaluating each proposal, here are some evaluation criteria to keep in mind: Minimum Selection Criteria • Can the actions be taken by those who requested the study? The President, Congress, or the federal agencies?

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253 APPENDIX C Evaluation Criteria • Cost—What is a rough estimate of how much the action will cost? Is the cost reasonable relative to the financial resources likely to be available? Can resources for this action be diverted from an existing activity as op- posed to “new money”? • Impact—Which degree of impact is the action likely to have on the problem of concern? • Cost-effectiveness—Which actions provide the most “bang for the buck”? • Timeframe—What is the desired timeframe for the action to have an impact? Is the action likely to have impact in the short- or long-term or both? • Distributional Effects—Who are the winners and the losers? Is this the best action for the nation as a whole? • Ease of Implementation—To what degree is the challenge easy, me- dium, or hard to implement? • History—Has the action been suggested by another committee or policy-maker before? If so, why has it not been implemented? Can the chal- lenges be overcome this time? • Is the Moment Right for This Action? Are they likely to be viable in the near-term political and policy context?

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254 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM K–12 Education Focus Group Top Recommendation Summary Roy Vagelos, Chair National Objectives • Lay a foundation for a workforce that is capable in science, technol- ogy, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)—including those who can cre- ate, support, and sustain innovation. • Develop a society that embraces STEM literacy. • Develop and sustain K–12 teacher corps capable of and motivated to teach science and mathematics. • Establish meaningful measures. Top Recommendations 1. The federal government should provide peer-reviewed long-term sup- port for programs to develop and support a K–12 teacher core that is well-prepared to teach STEM subjects. a. Programs for in-service teacher development that provide in-depth content and pedagogical knowledge; some examples include sum- mer programs, master’s programs, and mentor teachers. b. Provide scholarship funds to in-service teachers to participate in summer institutes and content-intensive degree programs. c. Provide seed grants to universities and colleges to provide sum- mer institute and content-intensive degree programs for in-service teachers. 2. Establish a program to encourage undergraduate students to major in STEM and teach in K–12 for at least 5 years. The program should include support mechanisms and incentives to enable teacher retention. a. Provide a scholarship for joint STEM bachelor’s degree and teacher certification program. Mandate a service requirement and pay a federal signing bonus. b. Encourage collaboration between STEM departments and educa- tion departments to train STEM K–12 teachers. 3. Provide incentives to encourage students, especially minorities and women, to complete STEM K–12 coursework, including a. Monetary incentives to complete advanced coursework. b. Tutoring and after-school programs. c. Summer engineering and science academies, internships, and re- search opportunities. d. Support school and curriculum organization models (statewide specialty schools, magnet schools, dual-enrollment models, and the like).

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255 APPENDIX C 4. Support the design of state public school assessments that measure necessary workplace skills to meet innovation goals and ensure No Child Left Behind assessments include these goals. 5. Provide support to research, develop, and implement a new genera- tion of instructional materials (including textbooks, modules, com- puter programs) based on research evidence on student learning out- comes, with vertical alignment and coherence across assessments and frameworks. Link teacher development and curricular development. K–12 Focus Group Participants Roy Vagelos, Chair Carolyn R. Bacon, Executive Director, O’Donnell Foundation Susan Berardi, Consultant Rolf K. Blank, Director of Education Indicators, Council of Chief State School Officers Rodger W. Bybee, Executive Director, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Hai-Lung Dai, Hirschmann-Makineni Chair Professor of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Associate Dean for Science and Mathematics Education and Outreach, College of Natural Science, Michigan State University Bruce Fuchs, Director, Office of Science Education, National Institutes of Health Ronald Marx, Professor of Educational Psychology and Dean of Education, University of Arizona David H. Monk, Professor of Educational Administration and Dean of College of Education, Pennsylvania State University Carlo Parravano, Executive Director, Merck Institute for Science Education Anne C. Petersen, Senior Vice President for Programs, W. K. Kellogg Foundation Helen R. Quinn, Physicist, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University Deborah M. Roudebush, Physics Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools Daniel K. Rubenstein, Mathematics Teacher, New York City Collegiate School J. Stephen Simon, Senior Vice President, Exxon Mobil Corporation

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256 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM Higher Education Focus Group Top Recommendation Summary Charles Vest, Chair National Objective The United States should lead in the discovery of new scientific and techno- logical knowledge and its efficient translation into new products and ser- vices in order to sustain its preeminence in technology-based industry and job creation. Our higher education system has a critical role in meeting this objective. Recommendation We recommend that Congress enact the Innovation Development Educa- tion and Acceleration Act (IDEA Act). Its purpose is to increase the number of US students, consistent with our demography, who will become innova- tion leaders; professional scientists and engineers; and science, mathemat- ics, and engineering educators at all levels. 1. Undergraduate Education: Increase the number and proportion of citizens who hold STEM degrees to meet international benchmarks, i.e., migrate, over 5 years, from 5 to 10% of earned first (bachelor’s- level) degrees. a. Provide competitive multiagency (nonthematic) scholarships for undergraduates in science, engineering, mathematics, technology, and other critical areas. The scholarships would carry with them supplemental support for pedagogical innovation for the depart- ments, programs, or institutions in which the students study. This program should support students at 2-year and 4-year colleges and research universities. 2. Graduate Education: Increase the number of US graduate students in science, engineering, and mathematics programs in areas of strategic national needs. a. Create a new multiagency support program for graduate students in STEM areas related to strategic national needs. This support should include an appropriate mix of competitive portable fel- lowships and competitive training grants. 3. Faculty Preparation and Support: Support the propagation of effec- tive and creative programs that develop scientific and technological leaders who understand the innovation process. a. Support workshops, preparation of educational materials, and experience-based programs.

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257 APPENDIX C 4. Create global scientific and technological leaders. a. Provide a globally-oriented education and opportunity for US stu- dents, and maintain the US as the most desirable place to pursue graduate education and/or scientific and technological careers. b. Define the policies that will maintain our long-term security and vitality through the openness of American education and research and the free flow of talent and ideas. Higher Education Focus Group Chuck Vest, Chair M. R. C. Greenwood, Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs, University of California Daniel Hastings, Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Randy H. Katz, United Microelectronics Corporation Distinguished Professor in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley George M. Langford, E. E. Just Professor of Natural Sciences and Professor of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College Joan F. Lorden, Provost and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, University of North Carolina-Charlotte Claudia Mitchell-Kernan, Vice Chancellor for Graduate Studies and Dean of Graduate Division, University of California, Los Angeles Stephanie Pfirman, Chair, Department of Environmental Science, Barnard College Paul Romer, STANCO 25 Professor of Economics, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University James M. Rosser, President and Professor of Health Care Management, California State University, Los Angeles Tim Stearns, Associate Professor of Biological Sciences and Genetics, Stanford University Debra Stewart, President, Council of Graduate Schools Orlando L. Taylor, Vice Provost for Research, Dean of Graduate School, and Professor of Communications, Howard University Isiah M. Warner, Vice Chancellor for Strategic Initiatives, Louisiana State University Dean Zollman, University Distinguished Professor, Distinguished University Teaching Scholar, and Head of Department of Physics, Kansas State University

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258 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM Research Focus Group Top Recommendation Summary Dan Mote, Chair National Objective America’s leadership in S&T has created our prosperity, security, and health. That leadership is now threatened. Our leadership resulted from a long-term investment in basic research. In order to keep our leadership po- sition we must revitalize our investments, particularly in the physical and mathematical sciences and engineering. Recommendations 1. Set the federal research budget to 1% of gross domestic product (GDP) within the next 5 years to sustain US leadership in innovation for prosperity, security, and quality of life. a. Address 21st-century global economy grand challenges in energy, security, health, and environment through interagency initiatives. b. Bring physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and informa- tion science up to the levels of health sciences. c. All agencies would expand their basic research programs. d. Replace decaying infrastructure in universities, national labs, and other research organizations. e. Longer-term, stable funding. 2. To foster breakthroughs in science and technology, allocate at least 5% of federal agency research portfolios to high-risk basic research. a. Allow for discretionary distribution for basic research with pro- gram oversight. b. Provide at least 5 years of adequate support for early-career re- searchers. c. Provide technical program managers in federal agencies with dis- cretionary funding. 3. Make S&T an attractive career to the best and the brightest. a. Create an undergraduate loan forgiveness program for students who complete a PhD in S&T and work as STEM researchers (e.g., $25,000 per year). b. Create training grants for graduate and postgraduate education across federal research budgets. c. Provide 5 years of transition funding for early career research. d. Cultivate K–12 students to careers in science and technology. e. Actively recruit and support the world’s best students and re- searchers and make it attractive for them to stay: address prob- lems with visas, deemed exports, and other barriers.

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259 APPENDIX C Research Focus Group Dan Mote, Chair Paul Avery, Professor of Physics, University of Florida Gary Bachula, Vice President for External Relations, Internet2 Angela Belcher, John Chipman Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Elsa M. Garmire, Sydney E. Jenkins Professor of Engineering, Dartmouth College Heidi E. Hamm, Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., Professor and Chair of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Mark S. Humayun, Professor of Ophthalmology, Biomedical Engineering, and Cell and Neurobiology, University of Southern California Madeleine Jacobs, Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer, American Chemical Society Cato T. Laurencin, Lillian T. Pratt Distinguished Professor and Chair of Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia David LaVan, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University Philip LeDuc, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University Deirdre R. Meldrum, Professor and Director of Genomation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington

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290 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM the University of Minnesota where she was professor of adolescent develop- ment and pediatrics. Before that, she was the first dean of the College of Health and Human Development at Pennsylvania State University. She has written more than a dozen books and 200 articles on adolescent and sex issues, including evaluation, health, adolescent development, and higher education. Her honors include election to the Institute of Medicine. She is a founding member of the Society for Research on Adolescence and was president and council member. She was president of developmental psy- chology in the American Psychological Association and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psy- chological Association, and the American Psychological Society. She is presi- dent-elect of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Develop- ment. Dr. Petersen holds a BS in mathematics, an MS in statistics, and a PhD in measurement, evaluation, and statistical analysis from the Univer- sity of Chicago. STEPHANIE PFIRMAN chairs the Department of Environmental Science at Barnard College. Her current research interests include environmental aspects of sea ice in the Arctic, interdisciplinary research and education, and advancing women scientists. As the first chair of NSF’s Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education, Dr. Pfirman over- saw analysis of a 10-year outlook for environmental research and educa- tion at NSF. She is also a co-principal investigator of NSF’s ADVANCE grant (to advance women scientists) to Columbia’s Earth Institute. Before joining Barnard, Dr. Pfirman was a senior scientist at Environmental De- fense and codeveloper of the award-winning traveling exhibition, “Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast,” developed jointly with the Ameri- can Museum of Natural History. She was research scientist and coordina- tor of Arctic programs for the University of Kiel and GEOMAR, Research Center for Marine Geoscience in Germany; staff scientist for the US House of Representatives Committee on Science Subcommittee on Environment; and oceanographer with the US Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Mas- sachusetts. Dr. Pfirman received her PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Oceanography and Oceanographic Engineering, Department of Marine Geology and Geophysics, and a BA from Colgate University’s Geology Department. DANIEL B. PONEMAN is a principal of The Scowcroft Group, which provides strategic advice to the group clients in the energy, aerospace, information-technology, and manufacturing industries, and others. For 9

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291 APPENDIX C years, he practiced law in Washington, DC, assisting clients in a wide variety of regulatory and policy matters, including export controls, trade policy, and sanctions issues. From 1993 through 1996, Dr. Poneman served as special assistant to the president and senior director for nonproliferation and export controls at the National Security Council (NSC), with responsi- bilities for the development and implementation of US policy in such fields as peaceful nuclear cooperation, missile-technology and space-launch ac- tivities, sanctions determinations, chemical and biologic arms-control ef- forts, and conventional-arms transfer policy. During that period, he partici- pated in negotiations and consultations with governments in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the former Soviet Union. Dr. Poneman joined the NSC staff in 1990 as director of defense policy and arms control after service in the Department of Energy. He has served as a member of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Com- bat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and other federal advisory panels. He received AB and JD degrees from Harvard University and an MLitt degree in politics from Oxford University. Dr. Poneman is the author of books on nuclear-energy policy, Korea, and Argentina and is a member of the Council of Foreign Relations. HELEN R. QUINN started her college career at the University of Mel- bourne, Australia. Two years into her degree, she moved to the United States and joined the physics department of Stanford University, where she completed both her BSc and her PhD in physics. After a postdoctoral fel- lowship at Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany, she briefly taught high school physics and then joined the staff and then the faculty of Harvard University. A few years later, she returned to Stanford to join the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, and she has been there since 1977. Her research concentrates on theoretical particle physics with a focus on phenomenology of the weak interactions; she is involved in outreach activities to encourage interest in physics. Her work with Robert Peccei resulted in what is now known as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry. Dr. Quinn was president of the American Physical Society for 2003. She was named a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1996 and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2003. She was awarded the Dirac Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 2000 for her work with Peccei and in the Georgi-Quinn-Weinberg computation of how different types of interactions may be unified. In addition to her re- search Dr. Quinn has maintained a steady involvement in precollege educa- tion, working chiefly with local efforts to improve science teaching. She was a coauthor of the Investigation and Experimentation strand of the Califor- nia science standards.

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292 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM PAUL ROMER is the STANCO 25 Professor of Economics in the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University and a senior fellow of the Hoover Institution. Dr. Romer was the lead developer of “new growth theory.” This body of work, which grew out of his 1983 PhD dissertation, provides a better foundation for business and government thinking about the dy- namics of wealth creation. It addresses one of the oldest questions in eco- nomics: What sustains economic growth in a physical world characterized by diminishing returns and scarcity? It also sheds new light on current economic issues. Among these, Dr. Romer is studying how government policy affects innovation and how faster technologic change might in- fluence asset prices. Dr. Romer was named one of America’s 25 most in- fluential people by Time magazine in 1997. He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000. He is also a fellow of the Econometric Society and a research associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). He was a member of the National Research Council Panel on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Develop- ment (1995), a member of the Executive Council of the American Econom- ics Association, and a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. Before coming to Stanford, Dr. Romer was a professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Chicago. Dr. Romer holds a PhD in economics from the University of Chicago. SHEILA R. RONIS is president of The University Group, Inc., a manage- ment consulting firm and think tank specializing in strategic management, visioning, national security, and public policy. She is also an adjunct profes- sor at the University of Detroit Mercy and at Oakland University, where she teaches “Strategic Management and Business Policy,” “Managing the Global Firm,” and “Issues of Globalization” in the MBA programs. She often lectures at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF) at the National Defense University in Washington, DC, and participates in its annual National Security Strategy Exercise. In June 2005, she chaired at ICAF the Army’s Eisenhower National Security Series event “The State of the U.S. Industrial Base: National Security Implications in a World of Glo- balization.” Her BS is in physics and mathematics and her MA and PhD from Ohio State University are in organizational behavior and general social systems theory. JAMES M. ROSSER has served as president and professor of healthcare management at California State University, Los Angeles, since 1979 and as professor of microbiology since 2004. He has served in many civic and community organizations, including the Los Angeles Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America, the Los Angeles County Alliance for College Ready

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293 APPENDIX C Public Schools, the California Chamber of Commerce, Americans for the Arts, Community Television of Southern California (KCET), Los Angeles After-School Education and Child Care Program—LA’s BEST, the Music Center Performing Arts Council/Education Council, and the California Community Foundation. His professional affiliations have included the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, the American Council on Education, the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, the California Council on Science and Technology, Edison International, the United Cali- fornia Bank, the FEDCO, Inc. Foundation, and numerous committees and commissions of the California State University system. He is a past chair of the Education and Human Resources Advisory Committee of the National Science Foundation. He was chair of the National Academy of Engineering Forum on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce in 2000-2002. DEBORAH M. ROUDEBUSH has been a physics teacher for 21 years. She holds national board certification in adolescent and young adult science. She was a 2001 Presidential Awardee for Excellence in Science Teaching. She has been a physics-teacher resource agent through the American Asso- ciation of Physics Teachers since 1992 and is the associate member for Virginia to the National Academy of Sciences Teacher Advisory Council. She has been a reader for advanced placement for computer science and physics since 1996. She has a keen interest in physics education research and the implications for improving physics teaching at all levels. She is an advocate for the importance of physics and science education for all stu- dents to enable data-driven decision-making at all levels of government. DANIEL K. RUBENSTEIN is currently the head of the Mathematics De- partment at Collegiate School in New York City. He has worked in second- ary education for 13 years. His first faculty position was teaching mathe- matics at Sidwell Friends School in Washington, DC. In addition, he spent a semester as assistant director and mathematics teacher at School Year Abroad Beijing. After 8 years of independent-school teaching, a Sidwell alumnus recruited Mr. Rubenstein to help build the mathematics program of the fledgling SEED Foundation Public Charter School in southeast Wash- ington, DC, where he remained for 2 years. He is a nationally board- certified mathematics teacher and an associate member of the National Academy of Sciences Teacher Advisory Council. In 2002, he received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics Teaching. He holds a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from Hamilton College and a master’s degree from St. Johns College in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and he is enrolled in a doctoral program at Columbia University in education leadership.

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294 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM JULIANA C. SHEI joined the General Electric Global Research Center in 1991. In 1995, she was appointed global technology manager and is respon- sible for the management of the R&D Center’s Global Technology Acquisi- tion Programs. In that role, she has established research collaborations with organizations around the world. Ms. Shei was the project manager to estab- lish a GE Research Center in Shanghai, China, in June 2000 and now leads Japan Technology Initiative in Japan. Ms. Shei is a member of the American Chemical Society and cochair of the Industrial Research Institute External Technology Directors’ Network. She is a board member for the United States Industry Coalition. She was a member of the Gore-Chernomyrdin Science & Technology delegation in 1997 and served as an industry representative for the President’s Council of Advisers on Science and Technology in 2002. Shei is very active in community service. She was a founder and the president of the Network, a professional women’s organization affiliated with the Na- tional Association for Female Executives, served as the board chair for the Chinese Community Center of the Capital District of New York, and is a board member of the Japanese Cultural Association of the Capital District. A native of Tokyo, Japan, Ms. Shei obtained her undergraduate degree from National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan, her MS from the University of Massachusetts, and her MBA from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Before joining General Electric, she worked at Ames Laboratory, the Research Cen- ter at the US Steel Corporation, and the Sterling Winthrop Research Institute (Eastman Kodak’s Pharmaceutical Division). J. STEPHEN SIMON is a senior vice president of Exxon Mobil Corpora- tion. Mr. Simon holds a BS degree in civil engineering from Duke University and an MBA from Northwestern University. He joined Exxon Company, USA in July 1967 and shortly thereafter began a 2-year assignment in the US Army. He returned to Exxon USA in July 1969 as a business analyst in the Baton Rouge refinery. After holding a variety of supervisory and mana- gerial positions throughout the Baton Rouge and Baytown refineries and in Exxon USA’s refining and controller’s departments, Mr. Simon became executive assistant to Exxon USA’s executive vice president in Houston. In 1980, he returned to the Baton Rouge refinery as Operations Division manager and then became refinery manager. In 1983, Mr. Simon moved to New York, where he was executive assistant to the president of Exxon corporation. In 1984, he moved to London, England, as supply manager in the Petroleum Products Department of Esso Europe Inc. and then supply and transportation manager. Mr. Simon returned to Houston in 1986 as general manager of Exxon USA’s Supply Department. In 1988, he became chief executive and general manager, Esso Caribbean and Central America, in Coral Gables, Florida. Simon moved to Italy in 1992 to become execu- tive vice president and then president of Esso Italiana. He returned to the

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295 APPENDIX C United States in 1997 and was named an executive vice president of Exxon Company, International, headquartered in Florham Park, New Jersey. In December 1999, he was appointed president of Exxon Mobil Refining & Supply Company and vice president of Exxon Mobil Corporation. In De- cember 2004, he assumed his current position as senior vice president of the Corporation. Mr. Simon has served on the local boards of many voluntary organizations—including United Way, Boy Scouts, and the Salvation Army—and is a member of the Governance Committee of the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering. He has also served on the boards of the American Petroleum Institute and the National Association of Manufacturers. He is a member of the board of visitors for Duke Uni- versity’s School of Engineering and a member of the president’s council. In addition, he is on the Kellogg Advisory Board of Northwestern University. TIM STEARNS is an associate professor in the Department of Biological Sciences and the Department of Genetics at Stanford University. He is also a member of the Committee on Cancer Biology, the steering group for the cancer-biology graduate training program, and he is chair of the Committee on Graduate Admissions and Policy, which oversees all graduate programs in the biosciences at Stanford. Dr. Stearns is the recipient of a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor Award, which he has used to develop a program for research-oriented undergraduates. The laboratory course for this pro- gram, Biosci 54/55, draws sophomore-level students from diverse intellectual backgrounds and has them use interdisciplinary approaches to solve prob- lems in cell biology. Dr. Stearns recently cofounded the Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics course, and he has taught advanced summer laboratory courses at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory at Woods Hole, and in Chile and South Africa. His research involves using a combination of imaging, genetics, biochemistry, and structural biology to understand the cytoskeleton. His laboratory was one of the first to use green fluorescent protein to visualize cytoskeletal dynamics and is a leader in understanding microtubule organiza- tion and its relationship to the cell cycle. DEBRA STEWART became the fifth president of the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) in July 2000. Before coming to the CGS, Dr. Stewart was vice chancellor and dean of the Graduate School at North Carolina State University. She also served as interim chancellor at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (1997) and as graduate dean and then vice provost (1988-1998) at North Carolina State. Among its 11 international members, CGS includes 9 major Canadian universities. Dr. Stewart received her PhD in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, her master’s degree in government from the University of Maryland, and her BA from Marquette University. She is the author or coauthor of numer-

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296 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM ous scholarly articles on administrative theory and public policy. Her disci- plinary research focuses on ethics and managerial decision-making. With sustained support from the National Science Foundation, Dr. Stewart has conducted research on political attitudes and moral reasoning among pub- lic officials in Poland and Russia. ORLANDO L. TAYLOR is vice provost for research, dean of the graduate school, and professor of communications at Howard University. Before joining the Howard faculty in 1973, Dr. Taylor was a faculty member at Indiana University. He has also served as a visiting professor at Stanford University. Dr. Taylor has served on the board of directors of the Council of Graduate Schools and was board chair in 2001. He is a past president of the Northeastern Association of Graduate Schools and the National Com- munication Association. He is the immediate past president of the Consor- tium of Social Science Associations and chairman of the board of the Jacob Javits Fellowship Program in the Humanities for the US Department of Education. He also serves as a member of the board of trustees of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Dr. Taylor has served in many capacities at Howard University: he has served as executive assistant to the president, interim vice president for academic affairs, dean of the School of Communications, and chair of the Department of Communica- tion Arts and Sciences. Dr. Taylor’s pioneering work in communication disorders, sociolinguistics, educational linguistics, and intercultural com- munication has led to the development of new theories and applications. In most of his scholarly work, he has focused on the rich cultural and linguis- tic diversity of the American people. He is the author of numerous articles, chapters, and books. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association awarded him its highest award, Honors of the Association, and the Alumni Association of the University of Michigan awarded him its Distinguished Service Alumni Award. The University of Massachusetts, Amherst, has awarded him the Chancellor’s Medal, and Yale University its Bouchet Medal for Leadership in Minority Graduate Education. Dr. Taylor received his bachelor’s degree from Hampton University, his master’s degree from Indiana University, and his PhD degree from the University of Michigan. NANCY VORONA is vice president of research investment at the Center for Innovative Technology (CIT). Her responsibilities include strategy and program development for CIT’s initiatives in nanotechnology and life sci- ences. Before her current appointment, she was CIT’s senior industry direc- tor for advanced materials and electronics. Ms. Vorona joined CIT in 1998. Ms. Vorona’s professional experience in electronics includes several years in marketing and sales management with International Rectifier Corpora- tion, a US manufacturer of power semiconductors based in California. She

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297 APPENDIX C was also responsible for international marketing and sales for Integrated Display Technology Ltd., a Hong Kong manufacturer of consumer elec- tronic products. In 1993, she joined the Virginia Economic Development Partnership to establish and increase the international business of Virginia’s information-technology and telecommunications companies. Ms. Vorona received a BA from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master’s degree in international management from Thunderbird, the Ameri- can Graduate School of International Management in Glendale, Arizona. ISIAH M. WARNER is Boyd Professor and vice chancellor for strategic initiatives of the Louisiana State System (LSU). He graduated cum laude from Southern University with a BS in chemistry in 1968. After working for Battelle Northwest in Richland, Washington, for 5 years, Dr. Warner attended gradu- ate school in chemistry at the University of Washington, receiving his PhD in chemistry (analytical) in June 1977. He was assistant professor of chemistry at Texas A&M University from 1977 to 1982 and was awarded tenure and promotion to associate professor effective September 1982. However, he elected to join the faculty of Emory University as associate professor and was promoted to full professor in 1986. Dr. Warner was named to an endowed chair at Emory University in September 1987 and was the Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Chemistry until he left in August 1992. During the 1988- 1989 academic year, he was on leave to the National Science Foundation as program officer for analytical and surface chemistry. In August 1992, Dr. Warner joined LSU as Philip W. West Professor of Analytical and Environ- mental Chemistry. He was chair of the Chemistry Department from 1994 to 1997 and was appointed Boyd Professor of the LSU System in July 2000, and Vice Chancellor for Strategic Initiatives in 2001. The primary research em- phasis of Warner’s research group is the development and application of improved methodologies (chemical, mathematical, and instrumental) for the study of complex chemical systems. His research interests include fluores- cence spectroscopy, guest-host interactions, studies in organized media, spec- troscopic applications of multi-channel detectors, chromatography, environ- mental analyses, and mathematical analyses and interpretation of chemical data using chemometrics. GENERAL LARRY WELCH (retired) was the 12th chief of staff of the US Air Force. As chief, he served as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipage of a combined active-duty, Guard, reserve, and civilian force serving at locations in the United States and overseas. Formerly president of the Institute for Defense Analyses, General Welch now serves as a senior associate. In addition, he provides expertise to a number of organizations, including the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the Joint Committee on

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298 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM Nuclear Weapons Surety, the National Missile Defense Independent Re- view Team, the US Space Command Independent Strategic Advisory Group, and the US Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group. General Welch received a BS in business administration from the University of Maryland and an MS in international relations from George Washington University. REAR ADMIRAL ROBERT H. WERTHEIM (retired) [NAE] is a consul- tant on national security and related issues. During his 38 years in the Navy, he was director of strategic systems programs, responsible for the research, development, production, and operational support of the Navy’s submarine-launched ballistic-missile program. After retirement from the Navy, he served for 7 years as Lockheed Corporation senior vice president for science and engineering; for the last 17 years, he has been a private consultant. He is a member of advisory groups serving the US Strategic Command, the Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories, and Draper Laboratory. Other current service includes membership on the joint Department of Defense and Department of Energy (DOE) Advisory Com- mittee on Nuclear Weapons Surety and on the University of California President’s Council on the National Laboratories. He is a former member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control, the DOE Laboratory Operations Board, and the De- fense Science Board. Admiral Wertheim graduated with honors from New Mexico Military Institute in 1942. He graduated with distinction from the Naval Academy in 1945 and received an MS in physics from the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology in 1954. He has been elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering and of the scientific and engineering societies, Sigma Xi and Tau Beta Pi, an honorary member of the American Society of Naval Engineers; and a fellow of the American Institute of Aero- nautics and Astronautics and the California Council on Science and Tech- nology. Admiral Wertheim has been honored with the Navy Distinguished Service Medal (twice), the Legion of Merit, the Gold Medal of the Ameri- can Society of Naval Engineers, the Rear Admiral William S. Parsons Award of the Navy League, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service. He was inducted into the New Mexico Military Institute Hall of Fame in 1987 and has been honored by the US Naval Academy with its 2005 Distinguished Graduate Award for his lifetime of service to the Navy and the nation. DEAN ZOLLMAN is University Distinguished Professor, Distinguished University Teaching Scholar, and head of the Department of Physics at Kansas State University (KSU). He has focused his scholarly activities on research and development in physics education since 1972. He has re-

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299 APPENDIX C ceived the NSF Director’s Award for Distinguished Teacher Scholars (2004), the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Doc- toral University Professor of the Year (1996), and American Association of Physics Teachers’ Robert A. Millikan Medal (1995). His research concen- trates on investigating the mental models and operations that students develop as they learn physics and how students transfer knowledge in the learning process. He also applies cutting-edge technology to the teaching of physics and to providing instructional and pedagogic materials to phys- ics teachers, particularly teachers whose background does not include a substantial amount of physics. He has twice been a Fulbright Fellow in Germany. In 1989, he worked at Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich on development of measurement techniques for digital video. In 1998, he visited the Institute for Science Education at the University in Kiel, where he investigated student understanding of quantum physics. Dr. Zollman is coauthor of six videodisks for physics teaching, the Physics InfoMall database, and a textbook. He leads the Visual Quantum Me- chanics project, which develops materials for teaching quantum physics to three groups of students: nonscience students, science and engineering students, and students interested in biology and medicine. His present instructional and research projects include Modern Miracle Medical Ma- chines, Physics Pathway, and research on student learning.

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