K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information

The goal is to have 1,500,000 high school students taking at least one Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) mathematics or science exam by 2010, an increase to 23% from 6.5% of US high school juniors and seniors who took at least one AP math or science exam in 2004, with 700,000 passing the exam^{1} (see Exhibit 1). AP/IB classes must be open to all students.

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Appendix F
K–12 Education Recommendations
Supplementary Information
JUSTIFICATION FOR NUMBERS OF TEACHERS AND
STUDENTS IN THE AP/IB AND PRE-AP/IB PROGRAMS
RECOMMENDED IN ACTION A-2
Students
The goal is to have 1,500,000 high school students taking at least one
Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) mathematics
or science exam by 2010, an increase to 23% from 6.5% of US high school
juniors and seniors who took at least one AP math or science exam in 2004,
with 700,000 passing the exam1 (see Exhibit 1). AP/IB classes must be open
to all students.
1AP passing score is 3-5; note that some colleges do not allow credit for AP coursework
unless a score of 5 is achieved. IB scores on a 7-point scale, and 5 or higher is considered
passing.
513

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514 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM
Exhibit 1 US Public School Enrollment and AP Participation
Projected 2004a Projected 2010b
Total Grade 9–12 Enrollment 14,700,000 14,600,000
Total Grade 11–12 Enrollment 6,500,000
Actual 2004c Projected 2010
Number of High School Jr./Sr. 380,000 1,500,000
Taking at Least One AP
Mathematics or Science Exam
Percent of Jr./Sr. Taking at Least 6.5% 23%
One AP Mathematics or Science Exam
AP Mathematics or Science Teachers 33,000 100,000
Students per AP Teacher 11.5 15
aThe College Board.
bStatistical
Abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Table 202.
cThe College Board.
The proposed AP incentive program (APIP) has increased the number
of students taking AP exams. To measure AP participation in a school,
district, state, or nation, we calculated the number of students taking AP
exams per 1,000 juniors and seniors. In 2005, the number of students tak-
ing AP exams in all math, science, or English in the Dallas 10 districts was
2.3 times that of the national level (see Exhibit 2).
Exhibit 2 Students Taking AP Math, Science, and English Exams per
1,0002 Juniors and Seniors Enrolled
Dallas 10 APIP Schools 245 students
Texas Public Schools 131 students
US Public Schools 105 students
Teachers—AP/IB
The AP and pre-AP programs as proposed would provide professional
development for 150,000 teachers now in the classroom to teach rigorous
math and science courses in middle and high schools. Of these, 70,000 will
2“Per 1,000” is calculated on the best enrollment data available at the time.

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515
APPENDIX F
teach Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses in math-
ematics and science.3 In addition, 80,000 teachers in grades 6–11 who are
now in the classroom will receive training, teachers guides, and assessments
instruments, such as those available in the Laying the Foundation program,
to prepare them to teach pre-AP mathematics and science courses that lead
up to AP or IB courses. The proposed professional development program
for AP/IB teachers is 7 days a year for 4 years; for Laying the Foundation
teachers it is 8 days a year for 4 years.
Assuming 10% attrition among the current 33,000 AP mathematics and
science teachers and by training an additional 70,000 teachers, public high
schools would have an estimated 100,000 mathematics and science teachers
capable of teaching AP or IB courses in place by 2010. This number is based
on a realistic goal with the capacity to provide quality professional training
for teachers on a large scale. As they become more productive and confident
as teachers, they will recruit more students into demanding mathematics and
science courses. We then realistically can expect steady increases in the num-
bers of junior and senior students who will take AP/IB mathematics and sci-
ence exams to 1.5 million students by 2010, with increases well beyond 2010.
Teachers—Pre-AP/IB
This proposal will provide pre-AP math and science training in content
and pedagogy for 80,000 teachers who are currently in grades 6–11 class-
rooms. The 4-year training program includes 8 days of training each year
for 4 years and the classroom materials (vertically aligned curriculum, les-
son plans, laboratory exercises, and diagnostics) needed to teach the more
demanding math and science courses. By 2010, these teachers will help
an estimated 5 million students each year develop critical thinking and
problem-solving skills in order to enlarge the AP pipeline in math and
science. This represents an estimated 20% of US students who will be
enrolled in grades 6–11 in 2010 (see Exhibit 3).
3Including AP calculus, computer science, statistics, biology, chemistry, physics, and envi-
ronmental science.

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516 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM
Exhibit 3 K–12 Students, Teachers, and Salariesa
Average # Science and
# Students # Teachers Salary Math Teachers
K–5 29,627,634 1,781,900 $46,408
350,702b
6–8
(191K in science,
160K in mathe-
matics)
9–12 18,504,864 1,264,723 $47,120
High School Grads 2,771,781
(2003-2004)
(1,700,000)c
Total (Fall 2003) 48,132,518 3,046,623 $46,752
aUnless otherwise noted, figures, excerpts, and charts are for the 2003-2004 school year, as
reported by National Education Association. Rankings and Estimates. Atlanta, GA: NEA
Research, 2005. Available at: http://www.nea.org/edstats/images/05rankings.pdf.
bFor the 1999-2000 school year.
cFrom Glenn Commission report, 2000. Includes ALL primary school teachers, as well as
specialty teachers in middle and upper grades.
NOTE: In 2003, there were 15,397 US school districts, and the average amount spent per K–
12 student from all revenue sources was $8,248.