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Appendix G
Bibliography

Adelman, C. 1998. Women and Men on the Engineering Path: A Model for Analysis of Undergraduate Careers. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Available at http://www.nae.edu/nae/diversitycom.nsf/98b72da8aad70f1785256da20053deaf/85256cfb00484b5c85256da000002f83/$FILE/Adelman_Women_and_Men_of_the_Engineering_Path.pdf.

Allen, M. 2003. Eight Questions on Teacher Preparation: What Does the Research Say? Washington, DC: Education Commission of the States. Available at: http://www.ecs.org/tpreport/.

Alliance for Science and Technology Research in America. 2004. Basic Research: Investing in America’s Innovation Future, a presentation for the House Republican High-Tech Working Group, March 31.

Alphonso, C. 2005. Facing security hurdles, top students flock to Canada. The Globe and Mail, February 22.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2004. Trends in Federal Research by Discipline, FY 1976-2004. October. Available at: http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/disc04tb.pdf and http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/discip04c.pdf.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2005. Historical Data on Federal R&D, FY 1976-2006. March 22. Available at: http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/hist06p2.pdf.

American Electronics Association. 2004. Losing the Competitive Advantage? The Challenge for Science and Technology in the United States. Washington, DC: American Electronics Association.

American Electronics Association. 2004. Offshore Outsourcing in an Increasingly Competitive and Rapidly Changing World: A High-Tech Perspective. Washington, DC: American Electronics Association, March.

Andrews, E. L. 2005. The doctrine was not to have one; Greenspan will leave no road map to his successor. New York Times, August 26, p. C1.

Arndt, M. 2005. No longer the lab of the world: U.S. chemical plants are closing in droves as production heads abroad. BusinessWeek, May 2. Available at: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_18/b3931106.htm and http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/051010/10energy.htm.



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Appendix G Bibliography Adelman, C. 1998. Women and Men on the Engineering Path: A Model for Analysis of Under- graduate Careers. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Available at http://www.nae. edu/nae/diversitycom.nsf/98b72da8aad70f1785256da20053deaf/85256cfb00484b5c 85256da000002f83/$FILE/Adelman_Women_and_Men_of_the_Engineering_Path.pdf. Allen, M. 2003. Eight Questions on Teacher Preparation: What Does the Research Say? Wash- ington, DC: Education Commission of the States. Available at: http://www.ecs.org/ tpreport/. Alliance for Science and Technology Research in America. 2004. Basic Research: Investing in America’s Innovation Future, a presentation for the House Republican High-Tech Work- ing Group, March 31. Alphonso, C. 2005. Facing security hurdles, top students flock to Canada. The Globe and Mail, February 22. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2004. Trends in Federal Research by Discipline, FY 1976-2004. October. Available at: http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/disc04tb. pdf and http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/discip04c.pdf. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2005. Historical Data on Federal R&D, FY 1976-2006. March 22. Available at: http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/hist06p2.pdf. American Electronics Association. 2004. Losing the Competitive Advantage? The Challenge for Science and Technology in the United States. Washington, DC: American Electronics Association. American Electronics Association. 2004. Offshore Outsourcing in an Increasingly Competitive and Rapidly Changing World: A High-Tech Perspective. Washington, DC: American Electronics Association, March. Andrews, E. L. 2005. The doctrine was not to have one; Greenspan will leave no road map to his successor. New York Times, August 26, p. C1. Arndt, M. 2005. No longer the lab of the world: U.S. chemical plants are closing in droves as production heads abroad. BusinessWeek, May 2. Available at: http://www. businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_18/b3931106.htm and http://www.usnews.com/ usnews/biztech/articles/051010/10energy.htm. 517

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518 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM Aslanbeigui, N., and V. Montecinos. 1998. Foreign students in US doctoral Programs. Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:171-182. Association of American Universities. 2005. A National Defense Education Act for the 21st Century. Renewing Our Commitment to US Students, Science, Scholarship, and Society (White paper). Washington, DC: AAU. Available at: http://www.aau.edu/education/ NDEAOP.pdf. Association of American Universities, Committee on Graduate Education. 1998. Graduate Education. Washington, DC: AAU. Athreye, S. S. 2003. The Indian Software Industry. Carnegie Mellon Software Industry Center Working Paper 03-04. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, October. Atkinson, R. 2004. Meeting the Offshoring Challenge. Washington, DC: Progressive Policy Institute. Atkinson, R. D. 2004. The Past and Future of America’s Economy: Long Waves of Innovation That Power Cycles of Growth. Northampton, MA: E. Elgar. Attewell, P. 2001. The winner take-all high school: Organizational adaptations to educational stratification. Sociology of Education 74(4):267-296. Attiyeh, G., and R. Attiyeh. 1997. Testing for bias in graduate school admissions. Journal of Human Resources 32:524-548. Auriol, L. Why do we need indicators on careers of doctorate holders? Workshop on User Needs for Indicators on Careers of Doctorate Holders. Paris: OECD, September 27. Avail- able at: http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2004doc.nsf. Austin, C., L. Brady, T. Insel, and F. Collins. 2004. NIH molecular libraries initiative. Science 306:1138-1139. Autor, D., L. Katz, and M. Kearney. 2005. Trends in U.S. Wage Inequality: Re-Assessing the Revisionists. Working Paper 11627. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Ayers, W. M. 2002. MIT: The Impact of Innovation. Boston, MA: Bank Boston. Available at: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/founders/Founders2.pdf. Babco, E. 2002. Trends in African American and Native American Participation in STEM Higher Education. Washington, DC: Commission on Professionals in Science and Tech- nology. Bar Shalom, A., and R. Cook-Deegan. 2002. Patents and innovation in cancer therapeutics: Lessons from CellPro. The Milbank Quarterly 80(December):iii-iv, 637-676. Bardhan, A., and C. Kroll. 2003. The New Wave of Outsourcing. Fisher Center Research Reports #1103. Berkeley, CA: Fisher Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics, No- vember 2. Bauer, P. W. 1999. Are We in a Productivity Boom? Evidence from Multifactor Productivity Growth. Cleveland, OH: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, October 15. Available at: www.clevelandfed.org/research/Com99/1015.pdf, Table 1. Berkner, L. K., S. Cuccaro-Alamink, and A. C. McCormick. 1996. Descriptive Summary of 1989-90 Beginning Postsecondary Students: 5 Years Later with an Essay on Postsecondary Persistence and Attainment. NCES 96155. Washington, DC: National Center for Educa- tion Statistics. Berliner, D. C., and B. J. Biddle. 1995. The Manufactured Crisis: Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America’s Public Schools. New York: Addison-Wesley. Bhagwati, J., A. Panagariya, and T. N. Srinivasan. 2004. The muddles over outsourcing. Jour- nal of Economic Perspectives 18(Summer):93-114. Blasie, C., and G. Palladino. 2005. Implementing the professional development standards: A research department’s innovative masters degree program for high school chemistry teach- ers. Journal of Chemical Education 82(4):567-570.

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519 APPENDIX G Bogumil, J. 2003. The Brain Drain in an Era of Liberalism. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Bureau for International Education. Bonvillian, W. B. 2004. Meeting the new challenge to US economic competitiveness. Issues in Science and Technology 21(1)(Fall):75-82. Boskin, M. J., and L. J. Lau. 1992. Capital, Technology, and Economic Growth. In Technol- ogy and the Wealth of Nations, N. Rosenberg, R. Landau, and D. C. Mowery, eds. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Boylan, M. 2004. Assessing Changes in Student Interest in Engineering Careers Over the Last Decade. CASEE, National Academy of Engineering. Available at: http://www.nae.edu/ NAE/caseecomnew.nsf/weblinks/NFOY-6GHJ7B/$file/Engineering%20Interest%20- %20HS%20through%20College_V21.pdf. Braxton, J. M. 2002. Reworking the Student Departure Puzzle. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. Brown, H. 2004. Council of Graduate Schools Finds Declines in New International Graduate Student Enrollment for Third Consecutive Year. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools, November 4. Bubnoff, A. von. 2005. Asia squeezes Europe’s lead in science. Nature 436(7049)(July 21):314. Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2006. 2005. Analytical Perspectives. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Available at: http://a255.g.akamaitech. net/7/255/2422/07feb20051415/www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy06/pdf/spec.pdf. Building Engineering and Science Talent. 2004. The Talent Imperative. San Diego, CA: BEST. Building Engineering and Science Talent. 2004. A Bridge for All: Higher Education Design Principles in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. San Diego, CA: BEST. Available at: http://www.bestworkforce.com. Bureau of Industry and Security. 2004. Deemed Export Controls May Not Stop the Transfer of Sensitive Technology to Foreign Nationals in the U.S. Final Inspection Report No. IPE- 16176. Washington, DC: Office of Inspections and Program Evaluations. Bush, V. 1945. Science: The Endless Frontier. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Bush pushes ubiquitous broadband by 2007. Reuters, March 26, 2004. Business Roundtable. 2005. Tapping America’s Potential. Washington, DC: Business Roundtable. Business Roundtable. 2006. Innovation and U.S. Competitiveness: Addressing the Talent Gap. Public Opinion Research. Washington, DC: Business Roundtable, January 12. Available at: http://www.businessroundtable.org/pdf/20060112Two-pager.pdf. Business-Higher Education Forum. 2005. A Commitment to America’s Future: Responding to the Crisis in Mathematics and Science Education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Busquin, P. Investing in people. Science 303:145. Butts, S., and R. Killoran. 2003. Industry-University Research in Our Times: A White Paper. Available at: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/guirr/IP_background.html. Bybee, R. W., and E. Stage. 2005. No country left behind. Issues in Science and Technology. (Winter):69-75. Calabrese, M. 2005. Testimony to the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, United States Senate, Hearing on Broadcast to Broadband: Completing the Digital Televi- sion Transition Can Jumpstart Affordable Wireless Broadband, July 12. Callan, B., S. Costigan, and K. Keller. 1997. Exporting U.S. High Tech: Facts and Fiction About the Globalization of Industrial R&D. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 1996. Global Innovation/National Competi- tiveness. Washington, DC: CSIS.

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520 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2001. Technology and Security in the 21st Century: US Military Export Control Reform. Washington, DC: CSIS. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2005. Security Controls on Scientific Informa- tion and the Conduct of Scientific Research. Washington, DC: CSIS, June. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2005. Technology Futures and Global Power, Wealth and Conflict. Washington, DC: CSIS, May, p. viii. Center for Sustainable Energy Systems. 2005. US Energy System Factsheet. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, August. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. 2005. National Heath Expenditures. Available at: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/downloads/tables.pdf. Central Intelligence Agency. 2001. Long-Term Global Demographic Trends: Reshaping the Geopolitical Landscape. Langley, VA: CIA, July, p. 25. Chelleraj, G., K. E. Maskus, and A. Mattoo. 2004. The Contribution of Skilled Immigration and International Graduate Students to US Innovation. Working Paper 04-10. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado. Clinton, W. J. 1997. Commencement Address at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Mary- land. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Books I and II. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, May 18. Available at: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ pubpapers/wjclinton.html. Clotfeltner, C. T., R. G. Ehrenberg, M. Getz, and J. J. Siegfried. 1991. Economic Challenges in Higher Education. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Cochran-Smith, M., and K. M. Zeichner. 2005. Studying Teacher Education. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Cohen, D. K., and H. C. Hill. 2000. Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Teachers College Record 102(2):294-343. Cohen, W. 2001. East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. New York: Columbia University Press. Cohen, W. M., and S. A. Merrill, eds. 2003. Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Wash- ington, DC: The National Academies Press. College Board. 2004. Trends in Student Aid 2004. Washington, DC: College Board. Colvin, G. 2005. Can Americans compete? Is America the world’s 97-lb. weakling? Fortune, July 25. Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy (the Moynihan Commission). 1997. Secrecy. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry. November 2002. Final Report. Arlington, VA: Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Indus- try. Available at: www.ita.doc.gov/td/aerospace/aerospacecommission/AeroCommission FinalReport.pdf. Committee for Economic Development, Research and Policy Committee, Learning for the Future. 2003. Changing the Culture of Math and Science Education to Ensure a Com- petitive Workforce. New York: Committee for Economic Development. Conference Board of Canada. 1999. The Economic Implications of International Education for Canada and Nine Comparator Countries: A Comparison of International Education Activities and Economic Performance. Ottawa: Department of Foreign Affairs and Inter- national Trade. Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engi- neering, and Technology Development. 2000. Land of Plenty: Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering, and Technology. Arlington, VA: National Sci- ence Foundation. Consortium for Policy Research in Education. 2002. A Report on the Eighth Year of the Merck Institute for Science Education. Philadelphia, PA: CPRE, University of Pennsylva- nia. Available at: http://www.mise.org/pdf/cpre2000_2001.pdf.

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521 APPENDIX G Constable, G., and B. Somerville. 2003. A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achieve- ments That Transformed Our Lives. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press. Corporate R&D scorecard. 2005. Technology Review (September):56-61. Council of Economic Advisers. 1995. Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Council of Economic Advisors. 1995. Supporting Research and Development to Promote Eco- nomic Growth: The Federal Government’s Role. Washington, DC: White House, October. Council of Graduate Schools. 2004. Ph.D. Completion and Attrition: Policy, Numbers, Lead- ership, and Next Steps. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools. Council on Competitiveness. 1991. Gaining New Ground: Technology Priorities for America’s Future. Washington, DC: Council on Competitiveness. Council on Competitiveness. 2001. Clusters of Innovation: Regional Foundations of US Com- petitiveness. Washington, DC: Council on Competitiveness. Council on Competitiveness. 2004. Innovate America: National Innovation Initiative Summit and Report: Thriving in a World of Challenge and Change. Washington, DC: Council on Competitiveness. Council on Government Relations. 1999. The Bayh-Dole Act: A Guide to the Law and Imple- menting Regulations. Washington, DC: CGR. Available at: http://www.ucop.edu/ott/ bayh.html. Council on Governmental Relations. 2003. Report of the Working Group on the Cost of Doing Business. Washington, DC: CGR, June 2. Crow, M., and B. Bozeman. 1998. Limited by Design: R&D Laboratories and the U.S. Na- tional Innovation System. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 5-6. Dalton, D. H., M. G. Serapio, Jr., and P. G. Yoshida. 1999. Globalizing Industrial Research and Development. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Technology Admin- istration, Office of Technology Policy. Davis, T. M. 2003. Atlas of Student Mobility. New York: Institute of International Education. Defense Science Board. 2001. The Defense Science Board 2001 Summer Study on Defense Science and Technology. Washington, DC: DSB. Department of Commerce. 2002. Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry, Final Report. Arlington, VA: Department of Commerce. Available at: http:// www.ita.doc.gov/td/aerospace/aerospacecommission/AeroCommissionFinalReport.pdf. Department of Defense. 2000. Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Washington, DC: De- partment of Defense. Department of Defense. 2001. Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Washington, DC: De- partment of Defense. Department of Energy. 1995. Task Force on Alternatives Futures for the Department of En- ergy National Laboratories (Galvin Commission). Washington, DC: Department of Energy. Department of State. 2004. Revision to Visas Mantis Clearance Procedure. State 153587, No. 22. Available at: http://travel.state.gov/visa/state153587.html. Dertouzos, M., R. Lester, and R. Solow. 1989. Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Dickeson, R. C. 2004. Collision Course: Rising College Costs Threaten America’s Future and Require Shared Solutions. Indianapolis, IN: Lumina Foundation for Education, Inc. Dresselhaus, M. S., and I. L. Thomas. 2001. Alternative energy technologies. Nature 414:332- 337. Dubois, L. H. 2003. DARPA’s Approach to Innovation and Its Reflection in Industry. In Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Work- shop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, pp. 37-48.

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522 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM Dupree, A. H. 1986. Science in the Federal Government: A History of Policies and Activities, 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Economic Policy Institute. 2004. EPI Issue Guide: Offshoring. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Ehrenberg, R. G., and L. Zhang. 2004. The Changing Nature of Faculty Employment. Work- ing Paper 44. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Higher Education Research Institute. Eisenberg, R. 2003. Science and the law: Patent swords and shields. Science 299(5609):1018- 1019. European Commission. 2005. Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General. New and Emerg- ing Science and Technology (NEST) Programme. Available at: http://www.cordis.lu/nest/ home.html. Evenson, R. E. 2001. Economic impacts of agricultural research and extension. In Handbook of Agricultural Economics Vol. 1, B. L. Gardner and G. C. Rausser, eds. Rotterdam: Elsevier, pp. 573-628. Finn, M. G. 2003. Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from US Universities, 2001. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. Florida, R. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class . . . and How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, & Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books. Florida, R. 2005. The Flight of the Creative Class: The New Global Competition for Talent. New York: Harper Business. Forrester Research. 2004. Near-Term Growth of Offshoring Accelerating. Cambridge, MA: Forrester Research, May 14. Fox, M. F., and P. Stephan. 2001. Careers of young scientists: Preferences, prospects, and reality by gender and field. Social Studies of Science 31:109-122. Freeman, R. 2005. It’s a flat world, after all. New York Times, April 3, Section 6, Column 1, Magazine Desk, p. 33. Freeman, R. B. 2005. Does Globalization of the Scientific/Engineering Workforce Threaten US Economic Leadership? Working Paper 11457. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Eco- nomic Research. Freeman, R., E. Weinstein, E. Marincola, J. Rosenbaum, and F. Solomon. 2001. CAREERS: Competition and careers in biosciences. Science 294(5550):2293-2294. Freeman, R. B., E. Jin, and C.-Y. Shen. 2004. Where Do New US-Trained Science-Engineering PhDs Come From? Working Paper 10544. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Eco- nomic Research. Friedman, T. L. 2005. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, pp. 414-419. Friedman, T. 2005. The end of the rainbow. New York Times, June 29. Galvin Panel report. 1995. Task Force on Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories, Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. Washington, DC: US De- partment of Energy. Geoffrey, C. 2005. America isn’t ready. Fortune, July 25. Gereffi, G., and V. Wadhwa. 2005. Framing the Engineering Outsourcing Debate: Placing the United States on a Level Playing Field with China and India. Available at: http:// memp.pratt.duke.edu/downloads/duke_outsourcing_2005.pdf. Gerstner, L. V., Jr. 2004. Teaching at Risk: A Call to Action. New York: City University of New York. Available at: http://www.theteachingcommission.org. Glenn Commission. 2000. Before It’s Too Late: A Report to the Nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.

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523 APPENDIX G Golde, C. M., and T. M. Dore. 2000. At Cross Purposes: What the Experiences of Doctoral Students Reveal About Doctoral Education. Philadelphia, PA: A Survey Initiated by The Pew Charitable Trusts. Gomory, R., and W. Baumol. 2001. Global Trade and Conflicting National Interests. Cam- bridge, MA: MIT Press. Gomory, R. E., and H. T. Shapiro. 2003. Globalization: Causes and Effects. Issues in Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Goo, S. K. 2004. Two-way traffic in airplane repair. Washington Post, June 1. Goo, S. K. 2005. Airlines outsource upkeep. Washington Post, August 21. Available at: http: //www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/08/20/AR2005082000979. html. Gordon, R. J. 2002. The United States. In Technological Innovation and Economic Perfor- mance, B. Steil, D. G. Victor, and R. R. Nelson, eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 49-73. Gordon, R. J. 2002. Technology and Economic Performance in the American Economy. Work- ing Paper 8771. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Gordon, R. J. 2004. Why Was Europe Left at the Station When America’s Productivity Loco- motive Departed? Working Paper 10661. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w10661. Government Accountability Office. 2004. Border Security: Improvements Needed to Reduce Time Taken to Adjudicate Visas for Science Students and Scholars. GAO-04-371. Wash- ington, DC: GAO. Government Accountability Office. 2005. National Nuclear Security Administration: Con- tractors’ Strategies to Recruit and Retain and Critically Skilled Workforce Are Generally Effective. GAO-05-164. Washington, DC: GAO. Government Accountability Office. 2005. Border Security: Streamlined Visas Mantis Program Has Lowered Burden on Science Students and Scholars, but Further Refinements Needed. GAO-05-198. Washington, DC: GAO. Government Accounting Office. 1998. Best Practices: Elements Critical to Successfully Reduc- ing Unneeded RDT&E Infrastructure. USGAO Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington, DC: GAO. Grabowski, H., J. Vernon, and J. DiMasi. 2002. Returns on research and development for 1990s new drug introductions. Pharmacoeconomics 20(Supplement 3):11-29. Gralla, P. 2004. U.S. lags in broadband adoption despite VoIP demand, says report. EE Times Online. Available at: http://www.eet.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=55800449. Gross, G. 2003. CEOs defend moving jobs offshore at tech summit. InfoWorld, October 9. Hall, B. H., and J. van Reenen. 1999. How Effective Are Fiscal Incentives for R&D? A Review of the Evidence. Working Paper 7098. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Hamilton, C. Winter 2003. University Technology Transfer and Economic Development: Pro- posed Cooperative Economic Development Agreements Under the Bayh-Dole Act. John Marshall Law Review. Henry L. Stimson Center and Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2001. Enhancing Multilateral Export Controls for US National Security. Washington, DC: Henry L. Stimson Center. Heyman, G. D., B. Martyna, and S. Bhatia. 2002. Gender and achievement-related beliefs among engineering students. Journal of Women and Minorities in S&E 8:33-45. Hicks, D. 2004. Asian countries strengthen their research. Issues in Science and Technology 20(4)(Summer 2004):75-78.

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525 APPENDIX G King, D. A. 2004. The scientific impact of nations. Nature 430(6997)(July 15):311-316. King, J. L. 2003. Patent examination procedures and patent quality. In Patents in the Knowledge- Based Economy, W. M. Cohen and S. A. Merrill, eds. Washington, DC: The National Acad- emies Press, pp. 54-73. Kissler, J. 2005. Why It Is in the Interest to Address the Growing Gap Between Public and Private Universities. Oakland, CA: University of California. Knezo, G. J. 2003. Sensitive but Unclassified and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy. Washington, DC: Con- gressional Research Service. Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). Available at: http://www.most.go.kr/ most/english/link_2.jsp. Lane, N., and T. Kalil. 2005. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Present at the Creation. Issues in Science and Technology 21(Summer):49-54. Laudicina, P. A. 2005. World Out of Balance: Navigating Global Risks to Seize Competitive Advantage. New York: McGraw-Hill. Leonard, J. A. 2003. How Structural Costs Imposed on U.S. Manufacturers Harm Workers and Threaten Competitiveness. Washington, DC: National Association of Manufactur- ers. Available at: http://www.nam.org/s_nam/bin.asp?CID=216&DID=227525&DOC= FILE.PDF. Lewin, T. 2005. Many going to college are not ready, report says. New York Times, August 17. Lewis, W. W. 2004. The Power of Productivity: Wealth, Poverty, and the Threat to Global Stability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lim, P. J. 2006. Looking ahead means looking abroad. New York Times, January 8. Lu, A. 2002. The Decision Cycle for People Going to Graduate School. Stamford, CT: Peterson’s Thomson Learning. Madey v. Duke Univ. 307 F.3d 1351. Available at: 2002 U.S. App. LEXIS 20823, 64 U.S.P.Q.2d. (BNA) 1737 (Fed. Cir. 2002). Mandel, M. J. 2004. Rational Exuberance: Silencing the Enemies of Growth and Why the Future Is Better Than You Think. New York: Harper Business, p. 27. Mann, W. C. 2003. Globalization of IT Services and White Collar Jobs. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. Mansfield, E. 1991. Academic research and industrial innovation. Research Policy 20:1-12. Markusen, A. R., and Costigan, S. S. 1999. The Military Industrial Challenge. In Arming the Future: A Defense Industry for the 21st Century, A. R. Markusen and S. S. Costigan, eds. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, p. 8. Mashelkar, R. A. 2005. India’s R&D: Reaching for the top. Science 307:1415-1417. Math and Science Expert Panel. 2004. Exemplary Promising Mathematics Programs. Wash- ington, DC: US Department of Education. May, R. M. 2004. Raising Europe’s game. Nature 430:831. McKinsey and Company. 2003. Offshoring: Is It a Win-Win Game? New York: McKinsey and Company, August. McKinsey and Company. 2005. The Emerging Global Labor Market: Part II—The Supply of Offshore Talent in Services. New York: McKinsey and Company, June, p. 23. Mehlman, B. 2003. Offshore Outsourcing and the Future of American Competitiveness. Busi- ness Roundtable Working Group Merck Institute for Science Education (MISE). Available at: http://www.mise.org/mise/index.jsp. Mervis, J. 2003. Down for the count. Science 300(5622)(May 16):1070-1074. Ministry of Science and Technology. 2004. Chinese Statistical Yearbook 2004. People’s Re- public of China, Chapter 21, Table 21-11. Available at: http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/ statisticaldata/yearlydata/yb2004-e/indexeh.htm.

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526 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM Moore, S., and Simon, J. L. 1999. The Greatest Century That Ever Was: 25 Miraculous Trends of the Last 100 Years. Policy Analysis No. 364. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, Decem- ber 15. Nadiri, M. I. 1993. Innovations and Technical Spillovers. Working Paper 4423. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. NASSCOM. 2005. Strategic Review 2005. India: National Association of Software and Ser- vice Companies. Chapter 6, Sustaining the India Advantage. Available at: http://www. nasscom.org/strategic2005.asp. The National Academies. 2005. Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Academy of Engineering. 1999. Concerning Federally Sponsored Inducement Prizes in Engineering and Science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Academy of Engineering. 2003. The Impact of Academic Research on Industrial Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Medicine. 2005. Building a Better Delivery System: A New Engineering/Health Care Partnership. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 2005. Enhancing the Com- munity College Pathway to Engineering Careers. Washington, DC: The National Acad- emies Press. National Academy of Sciences. 1996. Ozone Depletion, Beyond Discovery Series. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press, April. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1993. Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1999. Capitalizing on Investments in Science and Technology. Washington, DC: Na- tional Academy Press. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2002. Observations on the President’s Fiscal Year 2003 Federal Science and Technology Budget. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, pp. 14-16. National Center for Education Statistics. 1999. Highlights from TIMSS. Available at: http:// nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999081.pdf. National Center for Education Statistics. 2004. Schools and Staffing Survey: Qualifications of the Public School Teacher Workforce: Prevalence of Out-of-Field Teaching 1987-88 to 1999-2000 (Revised), p. 10. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002603.pdf. National Center for Education Statistics. 2004. Digest of Education Statistics 2004. Washing- ton, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education, Table 250. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d04/tables/dt04_250.asp. National Center for Education Statistics. 2005. International Outcomes of Learning in Math- ematics Literacy and Problem Solving: PISA 2003 Results from the U.S. Perspective. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, pp. 15, 29. Available at: http://nces. ed.gov/pubs2005/2005003.pdf.

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527 APPENDIX G National Center for Education Statistic. 2006. Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, and School Districts: School Year 2003–04. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/ pubs2006/2006307.pdf. National Center for Education Statistics. 2006. The Nation’s Report Card: Mathematics 2005. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2005/2006453.pdf. National Center for Teaching and America’s Future. 1996. Doing What Matters Most: Teach- ing for America’s Future. New York: NCTAF. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 2000. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Washington, DC: NCTM. Available at: http://standards.nctm.org. National Critical Technologies Panel. 1991. Report of the National Critical Technologies Panel. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. National Critical Technologies Panel. 1993. The Second Biennial Report of the National Criti- cal Technologies Panel. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. National Critical Technologies Panel. 1995. The National Critical Technologies Report. Wash- ington, DC: US Government Printing Office. National Energy Policy Development Group. 2001. National Energy Policy. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, May. National Institutes of Health. 2001. Working Group on Construction of Research Facilities. A Report to the Advisory Committee of the Director, National Institutes of Health. Bethesda, MD: NIH. National Institutes of Health. 2005. NIH Roadmap, High Risk Research. Available at: http:// nihroadmap.nih.gov/highrisk/. National Intelligence Council. 2004. Mapping the Global Future: Report of the National Intel- ligence Council’s 2020 Project. Pittsburgh, PA: Government Printing Office. National Research Council. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1984. High-Technology Ceramics in Japan. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. Wash- ington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1995. Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communi- cations Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1997. Industrial Research and Innovation Indicators. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1997. Improving Teacher Preparation and Credentialing Consis- tent with the National Science Education Standards: Report of a Symposium. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1997. Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary Science Education in Your School District. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. Balancing Scientific Openness and National Security Con- trols at the Nuclear Weapons Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. A Strategic Plan for Education Research and Its Utilization. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. Harnessing Science and Technology for America’s Eco- nomic Future: National and Regional Priorities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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528 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM National Research Council. 1999. Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. The Advanced Technology Program: Challenges and Op- portunities, Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: Chal- lenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Math- ematics, Engineering, and Technology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. US Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/catalog/ 6160.html. National Research Council. 1999. Harnessing Science and Technology for America’s Eco- nomic Future. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Renewal. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. On Evaluating Curricular Effectiveness: Judging the Qual- ity of K–12 Mathematics Evaluations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2000. New Practices for the New Millennium. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2000. An Assessment of the Department of Defense’s Fast Track Initiative. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2000. Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available at: http:// www.nap.edu/catalog/9955.html. National Research Council. 2000. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: An As- sessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiative. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Edu- cation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Wash- ington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technol- ogy: New Practices for a New Millennium. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. The Advanced Technology Program: Assessing Outcomes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Wash- ington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2002. Attracting PhDs to K–12 Education: A Demonstration Pro- gram for Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2002. Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. Schools. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technol- ogy in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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529 APPENDIX G National Research Council. 2003. Securing the Future: Regional and National Programs to Support the Semiconductor Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2003. Frontiers in Agricultural Research: Food, Health, Environ- ment, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. A Patent System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. An Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research Program: Project Methodology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism. Washing- ton, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. Evaluation of the National Aerospace Initiative. Washing- ton, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. Program Diversity and Assessment Challenges, Report of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. Engaging Schools: Fostering High-School Students’ Moti- vation to Learn. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2005. Assessment of Department of Defense Basic Research. Wash- ington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2005. Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2005. Avoiding Surprise in an Era of Global Technology Ad- vances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2005. National Laboratories: Building New Ways to Work To- gether. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Science and Technology Council. 1995. Final Report on Academic Research Infra- structure: A Federal Plan for Renewal. Washington, DC: White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. National Science and Technology Council. 2000. Ensuring a Strong US Scientific, Technical, and Engineering Workforce in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President of the United States. National Science Board. 2003. Science and Engineering Infrastructure for the 21st Century: The Role of the National Science Foundation. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Board. 2004. Committee on Programs and Plans, Charge to the Task Force on Transformative Research. Available at: http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/committees/ cpptrcharge.htm. National Science Board. 2004. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. Arlington, VA: NSF. Available at: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind04/c4/c4h.htm. National Science Board. 2004. Report to the National Science Board on the National Science Foundation’s Merit Review Process Fiscal Year 2004. NSB-05-12. Arlington, VA: NSB. National Science Foundation. 1999. Preparing Our Children: Math and Science Education in the National Interest. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Foundation. 2001. Survey of Doctorate Recipients 2001, the NSF Survey of Graduate Students and Postdocs. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Foundation. 2003. Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure, Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure. Arlington, VA: NSF.

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530 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM National Science Foundation. 2003. Graduate Enrollment Increases in Science and Engineer- ing Fields, Especially in Engineering and Computer Sciences. NSF 03-315. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Foundation. 2004. Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Fields Reaches New Peak; First-Time Enrollment of Foreign Students Declines. NSF 04-326. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Foundation. 2004. Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering 2002. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Foundation. 2005. Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2003. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Foundation. 2005. Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Pro- grams Up in 2003, but Declines for First-Time Foreign Students: Info Brief. NSF 05-317. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Foundation, Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure. 2003. Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure. Arlington, VA: NSF. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. 2000. Science and En- gineering Research Facilities at Colleges and Universities, 1998. NSF-01-301. Arlington, VA: NSF. Nelson, R. R., ed. 1993. National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press. Noon, C. 2005. Starbuck’s Schultz bemoans health care costs. Forbes Magazine, September 19. Nordhaus, W. 1999. The Contribution of Improved Health and Living Standards. Working Paper 8818. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Nordhaus, W. 2005. The Sources of the Productivity Rebound and the Manufacturing Em- ployment Puzzle. Working Paper 11354. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Office of Management and Budget. 2005. Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2006. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Office of Science and Technology—Embassy of Austria. 2005. Canada: Immigration Policy Change Widens Door for Foreign Students and Scholars. Bridges 6. July 13. Available at: http://www.ostina.org/content/view/379/163/. Office of Science and Technology Policy. 2000. Analysis of Facilities and Administrative Costs at Universities. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President. Office of Scientific Research and Development. 1945. Science—The Endless Frontier. Wash- ington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Ohland, M. W., G. Zhang, B. Thorndyke, and T. J. Anderson. 2004. Grade-Point Average, Changes of Major, and Majors Selected by Students Leaving Engineering. 34th ASEE/ IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. Session T1G:12-17. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1998. Technology, Productivity, and Job Creation: Best Policy Practices. Paris: OECD Publications. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2002. International Mobility of the Highly Skilled. Policy Brief 92 2002 01 1P4. Paris: OECD Publications. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/9/20/1950028.pdf. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2003. Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard, 2003 R&D Database. Paris: OECD Publications. Available at: http: //www1oecd.org/publications/e-book/92-2003-04-1-7294/. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2003. Tax Incentive for Research and Development: Trends and Issues. Paris: OECD Publications. Available at: http://www. oecd.org/dataoecd/12/27/2498389.pdf.

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