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Index

A

Abramovitz, Moses, 1 n.1

Academic research

advanced instruments and facilities, 7-8, 146, 147, 148

centers, 438-439

collaboration with federal laboratories, 93-94

commercialization of inventions, 432, 433, 440-442

doctoral employment, 84, 103, 144

export controls and, 35

federal funding, 46-47, 148, 168, 364, 405, 409, 416, 421-422, 431, 439, 443

grants, 170

industry collaboration, 408, 432, 433, 438-439, 440-442, 466

international students and scholars, 176

patent issues, 186, 188-190, 440-442

postdoctoral fellowships, 346

reimbursement for administrative costs, 148, 168, 416, 421-422

return on investment, 46-47, 48

sensitive but unclassified information, 36, 105, 474, 476-479

Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) training, 4, 5, 119, 125, 126-127, 135, 514-515

Advanced Placement Incentive Program (APIP), 6, 127, 130-131, 514

Advanced research instrumentation and

facilities (ARIF), 7-8, 145-149, 405, 509

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), 8, 152-158, 509

Advanced Technology Program (ATP), 88, 90, 432, 433, 435-437

Advisory committees, national, 432, 442-443

Aeronautical engineering, 44, 60, 62

Aerospace technology, 44

Afghanistan war, 485

African Americans, 95, 131, 312, 313, 315, 316, 328, 341, 343, 344, 345, 351

Agriculture

higher education, 101, 343, 351



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Index A sensitive but unclassified information, 36, 105, 474, 476- Abramovitz, Moses, 1 n.1 479 Academic research Advanced Placement (AP) and advanced instruments and facilities, International Baccalaureate (IB) 7-8, 146, 147, 148 training, 4, 5, 119, 125, 126- centers, 438-439 127, 135, 514-515 collaboration with federal Advanced Placement Incentive Program laboratories, 93-94 (APIP), 6, 127, 130-131, 514 commercialization of inventions, Advanced research instrumentation and 432, 433, 440-442 facilities (ARIF), 7-8, 145-149, doctoral employment, 84, 103, 144 405, 509 export controls and, 35 Advanced Research Projects Agency- federal funding, 46-47, 148, 168, Energy (ARPA-E), 8, 152-158, 364, 405, 409, 416, 421-422, 509 431, 439, 443 Advanced Technology Program (ATP), grants, 170 88, 90, 432, 433, 435-437 industry collaboration, 408, 432, Advisory committees, national, 432, 433, 438-439, 440-442, 466 442-443 international students and scholars, Aeronautical engineering, 44, 60, 62 176 Aerospace technology, 44 patent issues, 186, 188-190, 440- Afghanistan war, 485 442 African Americans, 95, 131, 312, 313, postdoctoral fellowships, 346 315, 316, 328, 341, 343, 344, reimbursement for administrative 345, 351 costs, 148, 168, 416, 421-422 Agriculture return on investment, 46-47, 48 higher education, 101, 343, 351 537

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538 INDEX B negative effects of innovation in, 59 productivity, 46, 59 Bangalore, 23 return on R&D investment, 47, 48 Bardhan, Ashok, 211 technological innovations, 42, 44, Barrett, Craig, 17 59 Basic research AIDS, 43 in China, 38 Air quality, 58 defined, 68 Alexander, Lamar, 2 DOD, 7, 89, 90, 92, 137, 140, 141, Alternative Trade Adjustment for 143, 150, 151, 402, 426, 431, Older Workers Program, 469 484, 486, 487 American Association for the energy-related, 153 Advancement of Science (AAAS), export controls, 35 128 n.39, 322 federal funding, 7, 66-67, 89, 90, American Jobs Act of Wisconsin, 27 92, 93, 136-143, 146-147, 150, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, 151-152, 397, 398, 402, 403, 328, 341, 344, 345, 351 408, 416, 417, 423, 433 American Intellectual Property Law high-risk, high-payoff, 8, 149-152, Association, 188 398, 408, 416, 417, 423, 433, Anthrax mailings, 66, 481, 483 436, 509 Apple Corporation, 184 industry, 84, 86, 93, 157 Applied research practical applications in industry, corporate funding, 32 51, 52, 140 defined, 68 pure, 69 federal funding, 141, 397, 403, 408 qualitative measures, 419 practical applications in industry, 51 security-related, 90, 137, 140, 141, pure, 69 150, 483, 484, 485, 487, 488, qualitative measures, 419-420 490 security-related, 141, 150, 485, 486, recommendations, 7, 136 487, 490 unclassified, 173 US leadership, 68 US leadership, 68 Argonne National Laboratory, 92 use-inspired, 69 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Bayh–Dole Act, 433, 440-442 (APEC), 394-395 Belgium, 100, 310-311 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, 315, Bell, Alexander Graham, 35 316, 344, 345 Bell Laboratories, 32, 83, 84, 157, 333 AT&T, 35 Bingaman, Jeff, 2 Atomic Energy Act, 475 n.1 Biodefense research, 488, 493 Australia Biological sciences, 76, 101, 336, 337, higher education, 100 338, 343, 351 immigration policy, 178, 179, 384- Biomedical research, 33 n.38, 90, 139, 385, 393, 394 144, 199, 333, 334, 399, 411, tax credits for R&D, 195 417, 423, 424 test scores, 132, 308-311 Biotechnology industry, 50, 59, 82, 88, Austria, AP test scores, 132 198, 222, 333, 453 Automotive engineering, 44, 57-58, 60, Boehlert, Sherwood, 2 64, 71, 159, 196, 440 Boeing, 184, 491

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539 INDEX Brazil, 23, 206 industry, 333, 334, 335, 336, 351, BRICs, economic competitiveness, 206. 353 See also individual countries information about options, 351 Brin, Sergey, 35 PhDs, 351, 353 Broadband Internet access, 12, 15, promotion of, 326 201-203, 461, 462 prospects, 103, 164, 168, 170, 171- Broadband over Power Lines (BPL), 203 172, 332-333, 351, 353 Building Engineering and Science salaries, 338, 339 Talent (BEST) committee, 167 student interest in, 98-104, 327-328 Bulgaria, 310-311 trends in employment, 335, 338 Bush, George W., 17, 25, 142, 202, Carnegie, Andrew, 35 475, 476 Case Institute of Technology, 120 n.19 Bush, Vannevar, 66, 112, 398-399 Cellular phones, 71, 462 Business Roundtable, 108, 142 Center for Strategic and International Business Software Alliance, 463 Studies (CSIS), 108, 213, 214 Center for the Study of Teaching, 116 Chemical industry, 14, 86 C Chile, 311 China California Teach program, 4, 117-119 advanced instruments and facilities, Canada 147 broadband access, 462 broadband access, 462 education, 100, 132, 200, 387 degrees in science or engineering, immigration policy, 178, 384-385, 16, 99, 216, 217 391, 393-394, 395 doctoral production, 387, 388 innovation environment, 37, 200 economic growth, 1, 14, 68, 206, spending on R&D, 74 209, 222 tax credits for R&D, 195 energy consumption, 221 US R&D in, 86, 195 foreign investment in, 209, 210, 219 working-age population, 212 graduate education, 76, 78, 79, 217, Cancer, 55, 57, 59 342, 379, 387, 388 Carbon capture and sequestration, 159 highly skilled workers, 24, 32, 73, Careers in science and technology. See 176, 208 also Employment; Highly skilled immigration policy, 391, 395 workers; Human capital incentives for returning students, 82, development; Researchers and 173, 461 scientists innovation environment, 23, 38, 78, academic faculty, 326, 333, 334, 79, 147, 195, 209, 210 336, 353 market share of advanced aspirations of K–12 students, 312, technology, 14, 15, 206-207, 314 209, 210, 219, 220, 462-463 disincentives, 328-333 middle-class consumer market, 14, engineers, 16, 164, 166, 168, 170, 206-207 329, 383 Ningbo Economic & Technical government, 169, 333, 334, 336, Development Zone, 195 351, 353, 481, 494-496, 497, 499

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540 INDEX outsourcing by US companies to, 1, Communications technologies, 39, 44, 14, 23, 73, 88 53, 60, 63, 140, 201-203, 211 piracy of intellectual property, 456, Computational science infrastructure, 463 433, 442-443 population, 206 Computer sciences. See Mathematics publication volume and frequency, and computer sciences 77 Computers, 44, 47, 52, 53, 71, 86, 206 R&D policy, 38, 72-73, 74, 195 Congressional Budget Office, 12, 203 research universities, 35, 386 n.24 Consolidated Appropriations Act of spending on R&D, 74, 208 2005, 10 n.8, 177 n.15 stay rates of students in US, 382 Contests and prizes in science, 76 tax credits for R&D, 195 Continuing education, 9, 172-173, test scores, 308-311 467-468, 485, 498 US R&D in, 86 for employees of US businesses, wage structure, 24, 29, 73, 88 172-173, 467, 485, 510 working-age population, 212 researchers and scientists, 172-173 Chinese Science Foundation, 72 tax credits, 9, 172-173, 457, 467- Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 58-59 468, 485, 498, 511 Cisco, 207 Controlled technologies, 34-36 Civilian Technology Corporation, 434- deemed export policy, 10, 35, 105, 435 180-181, 388, 391 Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, 185 Cooperative Economic Development Climate Change Science Program, 411 Agreements (CEDAs), 442 Clinical medicine, 76 Coordinating Council for Mathematics Clinton, Bill, 17 and Science Teaching, 324 Cold War, 38, 66, 90, 156, 351, 424, Corporate R&D. See also US 475, 485, 493 businesses Collaborative research and academic research collaboration, development agreements 408, 432, 433, 438-439, 440- (CRADA), 339-340, 439-440 442, 466 College Board, 126, 127 applied research, 32 College education. See Graduate basic research, 84, 86, 93, 157 education in science and consortia, 88, 90, 432, 433, 435- engineering; Higher education in 437, 466 science and engineering; CRADAs, 439-440 Undergraduate education in doctoral employment, 83, 84 science and mathematics and employment, 193 Colleges and universities. See Academic energy-related, 156, 157 research; Higher education in foreign-owned companies in US, 86, science and engineering; Public 194 colleges and universities; funding, 48-49, 84, 85, 86-88, 90, Research universities; individual 137, 215, 410 institutions globalization, 86 Commission on the Future of the government–industry collaboration, United States Aerospace 106, 116 n.10, 133, 158, 324, Industry, 442 340, 375, 432, 433-435, 439- 440, 443

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541 INDEX laboratory facilities, 92 n.50, 93 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation manufacturing sectors, 86 Supplement (DFARS), 181, offshore, 86, 195 480 patent and licensing issues, 440-442 Defense-related research and postdoctoral researchers, 144 technologies, 66-67, 90, 105 return on investment, 48-49 n.68, 137, 140, 141, 143, 150, startup companies, 86 151-152, 399, 407, 409, 484, survey of, 453 485-488, 490, 491 tax credits, 11-12, 88, 89, 184, 185, Defense Science Board, 487 192-197, 457, 465-466, 511 Denmark, 462 trends, 32, 93, 137, 441 Deutch, John, 140 venture capital investments, 86-88, Developing countries, 59. See also 90, 185, 198, 200, 209, 220, individual countries 434, 448 implementing technology in, 64 Council of Economic Advisers, 12, 203 standard of living, 36 Council on Competitiveness, 108, 109, DeVry Institute of Technology, 143, 177, 187, 193, 213, 424, 450 469 Council on Graduate Schools, 385 Dirac, Paul, 51 CUNY Bernard Baruch College, 469 Disaster mitigation, 63-64 Cyprus, 132, 308-311 Dow, Herbert Henry, 35 Czech Republic Dow Chemical, 35 education, 100, 132, 387 Dubois, Lawrence, 151 immigration policy, 178, 385, 393 Duderstadt, Jim, 162 Duke University, 189 D E Data collection and evaluation graduate education, 346, 351, 354 Early-career awards and funding, 7, on US research and innovation, 444, 136, 143-145, 146, 149, 150, 445, 452-454 161, 326, 423, 426-431, 508- DAVINCI, 82 509. See also Presidential Early Deemed-export controls. See also Career Award for Scientists and Export controls on technology Engineers academic research and, 35 Earthquake engineering, 63-64 basic research and, 35 eBay, 207 international students and Economic competitiveness, researchers, 10, 35, 105, 180- international comparison, 23-25, 181, 388 29, 68, 205, 206-208. See also national security, 10, 35, 105, 180- US competitiveness in science 181, 388, 391, 474, 479-481 and technology; US economy policy, 10, 35, 105, 180-181, 388, Economics, 337, 338 391, 392 Economy. See Global economy; US Defense Advanced Research Projects economy Agency (DARPA), 33, 39 n.53, Edison, Thomas, 51 150, 151-152, 154, 157, 169, 420. See also US Department of Defense

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542 INDEX Education. See Graduate education in corporate R&D, 156, 157 science and engineering; Higher costs, 37, 154 education in science and development of alternative sources, engineering; K–12 science and 153, 472 mathematics education; economic issues, 65, 154, 155 Undergraduate education in environmental challenges, 154, 156 science and mathematics funding of research, 153, 154, 457 curriculum design, 66 price shocks, 155 employee continuing education, promising technologies, 158, 159 172-173, 467-468, 485, 498 security issues, 154, 155, 156 public concerns about, 37 supply, 155, 159, 221 Einstein, Albert, 35 Engineering El Salvador, 14 doctorates awarded, 80, 331 Electricity, 41, 44, 51, 60, 61, 63, 64 employment, 16, 164, 166, 168, Electron microscope, 145 170, 329, 383 Electronics, 44, 83, 86, 198 funding for research, 90, 93, 137, Employment. See also Careers in 138, 139, 141, 142 science and technology; Human graduate school enrollments, 330, capital development 336, 337, 350, 386 corporate R&D, 83, 84, 193 international graduate students, 83, foreign direct investment in US and, 350, 379, 381, 382, 383, 386 207-208 master’s degrees, 349 globalization, 210-212 minority doctoral degrees, 351 graduate education and, 83, 84, salaries of PhDs, 338 103, 104, 164, 166, 168, 170, undergraduate degrees, 16, 101, 171-172, 328, 332-335, 351 164, 166, 343 information technology and, 47-48, US competitiveness, 76, 80, 83 201 Engineering Research Centers (ERCs), foreign-born workers, 338, 339, 438 381-382, 383-384, 393 Environment new jobs, 14 agricultural mechanization and, 59 offshore movement of jobs, 26-30, air quality, 58 88, 91, 209-212, 466-467, 468 automotive emissions, 57-58 PhDs, 83, 84, 103, 144 carbon capture and sequestration, public concerns, 36 159 returns on R&D investment, 49, 50, chlorofluorocarbons, 58-59 211-212 energy-related issues, 154, 156 tax credits for corporate R&D and, funding for research, 93, 139, 156 194 negative effects of innovations, 42, Energy. See also US Department of 57-59 Energy soil erosion, 59 ARPA-E research organization, 152- US competitiveness in research, 76 158 water quality, 57 basic research, 153 European Union (EU) conservation and efficiencies, 63, disciplinary strengths, 76 64-65, 159, 440 doctoral production, 79, 217, 387

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543 INDEX economic growth, 213, 222 applied research, 141, 397, 403, engineering students, 32 408 GDP per capita, 199 balancing allocations, 7, 137, 141, high-risk research, 425 397, 400-408 highly skilled workforce, 387, 388 basic research, 7, 66-67, 89, 90, 92, innovation environment, 23, 199 93, 136-143, 146-147, 150, 151- international students, 384, 385, 152, 397, 398, 402, 403, 408, 393 416, 417, 423, 433 Justice and International Affairs budgets, 398, 399, 406 council, 178, 385, 393 competition for resources, 213, 362, New and Emerging Science and 365, 375 Technology (NEST) program, competitive merit review, 405, 413, 425 417 patents and patent system, 186, coordination of, 7-8, 148-149, 397, 190, 191 401, 414, 416, 420, 432, 437 publication volume and frequency, cost estimates for recommendations, 74, 77, 78, 215 502-503, 508-511 recruiting talent, 82, 384, 388 deemed export policy and, 105 Researcher’s Mobility Portal, 82 defense-related, 93, 142, 143, 150, spending on R&D, 72, 74, 208, 151-152, 407, 409, 426 409, 411, 412 by discipline, 90-91, 93, 137, 138, working-age population, 212, 213 139, 141, 142, 411, 413 Export Administration Act, 10 n.9, early-career awards, 7, 136, 143- 180, 479 145, 146, 149, 150, 161, 326, Export controls on technology, 10, 34- 423, 426-431, 508-509 36, 105, 180-181, 388, 391, 474, electronic grant application, 417 485 energy-related, 8, 152-158, 159, 457, 509 evaluation of best practices and, F 405, 416, 417 GDP share of investment, 17, 47, Faraday, Michael, 51 72, 85, 91, 137, 138, 139, 398, Federal Communications Commission, 409-410 203, 433, 439 guidelines for investing adequately, Federal Demonstration Partnership, 408-413 416, 421-422 high-risk research, 8, 149-152, 398, Federal funding of R&D. See also 408, 416, 417, 423, 433, 436, individual agencies 509 academic, 46-47, 148, 168, 364, international comparisons, 16-17, 405, 409, 416, 421-422, 431, 72-73, 74, 137, 205, 208, 215, 439, 443 409-411, 412 advanced research instrumentation K22 awards, 431 and facilities, 7-8, 145-149, 403, nanotechnology, 448 509 national/homeland security R&D, by agency, 402, 403, 406 141, 150, 399, 409, 484, 485, alternative viewpoints, 138, 153, 486, 488 170

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544 INDEX peer review system and, 150, 424 Ford Motor Company, 14 postdoctoral training support, 346, Foreign Exchange Committee, 461 354-356, 431 Foreign Sales Corporation, 466 prizes and awards, 8, 158, 160-161, Foreign students and researchers. See 416, 423, 509 International students and R01, R23, R29, R37 grant researchers applications, 429, 431 Forrester Research, 211 rate of return on investment, 46-48, France 49-50, 399, 411 AP test scores, 132 rationale for, 45-46 degrees in science or engineering, recommendations, 4, 7-8, 110, 136- 16, 99, 100, 165 137, 142-143, 145, 157, 258, doctoral production, 387 400-401, 408, 411-412, 414 economic competitiveness, 206 reimbursement for administrative spending on R&D, 72 costs, 148, 168, 416, 421-422 tax credits for R&D, 195 research centers, 438 US R&D in, 86, 195 restraints on, 89-92 Free Application for Federal Student size and duration of awards, 416, Aid, 376 417, 418 Free trade, 28, 36, 212 social rates of returns, 49-50, 161, FreedomCAR, 440 399 Freeman, Richard, 217-218 sources, 89-91 Friedman, Thomas, 23-24 tax incentives, 11-12, 88, 89, 184, Frigidaire, 58 185, 192-197, 203, 398, 408, Funding of R&D. See also Corporate 413, 424, 457, 465-466, 511 R&D; Federal funding of R&D trends, 32-33, 85, 89-92, 93, 137, by investment stage and funder, 425 138, 205, 399, 401, 402, 403, 404, 406, 407, 409, 434, 435 G and US competitiveness, 86-92, 93, 205, 215, 409-410 Gates, Bill, 17 venture capital, 88, 90, 433-435 Gateway to Education Materials Federal laboratories. See National (GEM), 128 laboratories Genentech, 184 Fermi, Enrico, 35 General Electric Company, 17, 32, Fiber optics, 45, 60 120 n.19 Financial Markets Intermediary Georgia, Republic of, 64, 100 Committee, 461 German Academic International Finland Network (GAIN), 82 degrees in science or engineering, Germany 99, 100, 165 Academic Exchange Service, 82 economy, 1, 205 economic competitiveness, 68, 206 innovation environment, 23, 37, education, 79, 99, 100, 132, 386, 198 387, 388 spending for R&D, 411 immigration policy, 179 tax policies, 197, 198 per capita income, 73 Ford Foundation, 120 n.19 R&D, 72, 86

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545 INDEX Gerstner, Louis V., Jr., 17 fellowships, traineeships, and GI Bill of 1944, 31, 106, 375 stipends for US students, 9, 168- Glenn, John, 108 172, 326, 341, 346, 350, 352, Glenn Commission on K–12 education, 354, 485, 510 109 international competition for talent, Global climate change program, 149 78-83, 342 Global economy international students in US, 83, competitiveness, 23-25, 29, 205, 102, 104, 163, 216, 217, 328, 206-208 349, 350, 378, 379-382, 383, emerging markets, 206-208 385, 386 information technology and, 211, for K–12 teachers, 5, 6, 119, 124- 221 126, 304, 350, 504-505 job movement, 26-30, 210-212, 399 master’s degrees, 5, 6, 119, 124- multinational corporations and, 126, 304, 329, 332, 348-350, 209-210 485, 504-505 technological innovation and, 41 minorities (underrepresented), 102, n.2, 48 n.13 328, 349, 351 Global Insight, 211 quality of undergraduate education Global positioning technology, 140 and, 371 Global warming, 59 recommended federal actions, 256, GM, 14, 219 346, 349-350, 353-354 Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 303 recruitment of students, 76, 103 Goldman Sachs, 206 reforms, 171 Google, 32, 35, 140, 184, 207 research assistanceships, 350, 352, Gordon, Bart, 2 353 Government Accountability Office, 495 teaching assistanceships, 350, 352 Graduate education in science and trends, 385 engineering US competitiveness, 16, 70, 72, 76, alternative viewpoint, 170 78-83, 102, 216-217, 342, 350, apprenticeship model, 78 445 attrition, 102 women, 102, 328, 349, 351, 379 and career prospects, 103, 164, 168, Graduate Record Examination (GRE), 170, 171-172, 332-333, 351, 103-104, 336, 337, 340 353 Graduate Research Fellowship data collection and evaluation, 346, program, 170, 171 351, 354 Graduate Scholar Awards in Science, disincentives, 330-331 Technology, Engineering, and doctoral production, 16, 72, 78-81, Mathematics (GSA-STEM), 168 102, 163, 170, 205, 216, 217, Greece, 132 328, 329, 331, 332, 351, 387, 388 Greenspan, Alan, 17 enrollments, 102, 103-104, 163, Grove, Andrew, 35 164, 170, 217, 328, 330, 336- 337, 342, 350, 385 H faculty preparation and support, 256 federal funding, 71, 168-172, 346, Hart–Rudman Commission, 25, 66, 142 349-350, 510 Hatch–Waxman law, 190

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546 INDEX Health care. See also Medical recommendations, 162, 256-257, technologies; Public health 358 cost savings from new technologies, revenues by type of institution, 365 54, 57 tax credits for continuing education, graduate school enrollments, 336- 9, 172-173, 457, 467-468, 485, 337 498, 511 public concerns, 37 tuition fees, 368, 376 Heart disease, 55 US competitiveness, 16, 70, 205, Heisenberg, Werner, 51 217, 386-387 High, Howard, 17 and US economy, 358-359 High-energy physics, 16, 145, 153 Highly skilled workers. See also High-risk research, 8, 149-152, 398, Careers in science and 408, 416, 417, 423, 433, 436, technology 509 demand for, 29, 326 High-technology bubble, 29, 164, 198, desirable skills, 30, 88-89 200 foreign-born in US, 16, 216, 339, Higher education in science and 382, 383 engineering. See also Graduate offshore supply, 91, 210 education in science and recruitment, 175-177 technology; International retraining, 40, 212, 399 students and researchers; Public supply of, 29, 88, 213, 220, 326 colleges and universities; tax credits for continuing education, Undergraduate education in 9, 172-173, 457, 467-468, 485, science and mathematics 498, 511 access, 366, 370, 376 US share, 216 alternative viewpoint, 164 visas set aside for, 14 costs per student, 359 wages, 28-29, 88, 210, 218 data collection and evaluation, 346, Highways, 44, 60 351, 354 Hispanic Americans, 95, 131, 312, enrollments by type of institution, 313, 315, 316, 341, 343, 344, 360, 380 345, 351 faculty, 72, 256, 326, 333, 334, Hong Kong. See China 336, 353 Household appliances, 45, 60, 61 financial barriers, 31 Human capital development. See also flexible options for part-time and Careers in science and nonresidential students, 375 technology; Employment funding trends, 31-32, 357-358, assistance programs for displaced 371, 386 n.23 workers, 457, 468, 469 global capacity, 385-388 continuing education for employees, income and, 367, 370, 373, 374 172-173, 467-468, 485, 498 international comparisons, 16, 32, critical skills areas, 495, 496 72, 76, 100, 162, 199, 205, 208 defense-related jobs, 67, 106, 168, postdoctoral training, 346, 354-356 169, 375, 485, 493-499 public vs private, 359, 360, 363, entrepreneurship education, 467 365, 368, 375, 380 H1-B training grants, 469 quality, 366, 386-387

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547 INDEX health insurance and pensions, 14, residency after graduation, 10, 395- 467, 470 396, 457 highly skilled immigrants, 10, 177- and scientific workforce, 220, 469- 179, 378, 384-385, 389, 391, 470 393-394, 395-396, 457, 469-470 self-employed workers, 394 national laboratories, 493-494, 495, SEVIS tracking system, 389 497 student visas, 9-10, 33-34, 82-83, offshore outsourcing restrictions, 104, 163, 164, 173-177, 378, 27-28, 457, 470, 471 385, 388-393, 395 retraining of workers, 40, 212, 457, Technology Alert List, 174, 392 468 travel for scientific meetings, 174 wage supplements and on-the-job Visas Condor anti-terrorist training, 469 screening, 392 Hungary, 308-311 Visas Mantis clearances, 174, 378, 389, 391, 392 work permits, 175-177, 389, 395, I 396 working-age population and, 212 IBM, 14, 17, 32, 137, 215, 219 and workloads, 389-390 Iceland, 100, 387 India IDA Ireland, 196 consumer market, 206 Imaging technologies, 45 economic growth, 2, 206, 209, 222 Immelt, Jeffrey R., 17 energy consumption, 221 Immigration and Nationality Act, 36, higher education, 16, 24, 79, 379, 175 387, 388 Immigration policy highly skilled workers, 73, 82, 176, automatic extension of visas, 175- 208, 220 177 incentives for returning students, 82, business travel, 394-395 173, 461 change of status, 175 outsourcing by US companies, 2, 23, deemed export controls, 10, 35, 73, 76, 88 105, 180-181, 388, 391, 392, population, 206 474 research universities, 35 family reunification program, 178, stay rates of students in US, 382 393, 394 tax incentives for R&D, 195-196 H1-B visas, 10, 457, 470 wage structure, 15, 24, 29, 73, 88 highly skilled workers, 14 working-age population, 212 intent-to-return-home (214b) Indonesia, 311 provision, 175, 391 Industry. See also Corporate R&D; OECD countries, 177-179, 378, Multinational corporations; US 384-385, 391, 393-396 businesses points- (skills-) based programs, careers in S&T, 333, 334, 335, 336, 177-179, 378, 384-385, 391, 351, 353 393-394 Industry–University Cooperative reciprocity agreements, 175, 378, Research Centers (I/UCRCs), 438 388, 391 Infant mortality, 56 recommendations, 9-10, 389-393

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554 RISING ABOVE THE GATHERING STORM defense R&D, 484 Norway, education, 100, 132, 308- Faculty Early Career Development 311, 387 Program, 145 Noyce, Robert, 51 graduate education support, 71, Nuclear fusion, 51, 153 168, 170, 171, 349-350, 354 Nuclear technology, 45, 159 innovation surveys, 445, 452-454 Nuclear weapons, 39, 66, 156 major research instrumentation program, 149 O Math and Science Partnership, 121 Office of Integrative Activities Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 92 (OIA), 149 Office of Management and Budget, peer review system, 150 148, 160, 189, 353, 401, 421, research centers, 438, 439 422, 453 Small Grants for Exploratory Office of Science and Technology Research (SGER), 150 Policy, 148, 158, 160, 401, 408, spending on R&D, 7, 33, 89, 140, 445, 447, 450, 452 143, 144, 146, 150, 152, 364, Offshore outsourcing 402, 406, 411, 439, 443 cost-effectiveness, 15, 27-28, 209 Task Force on Transformative disclosure of, 457, 471 Research, 425 and domestic wages, 28-29 undergraduate education support, employment effects in US, 26-30, 165 88, 210-212 National Security Decision Directive and investment climate, 37, 456 189 (NSDD-189), 105, 474, 475- market size, 91 476 protectionist measures, 27-28, 457, National Space Policy (1989), 440 470, 471 National Venture Capital Association public concerns about, 37 (NVCA), 86-87 reasons for, 3-4, 26-27, 88, 209-210 Netherlands, 100, 308-311, 462 service sector jobs, 28, 91, 209-210, Network systems, 32 211, 466-467, 468 Networking and Information by US businesses, 1, 14, 23, 26-30, Technology R&D, 411 73, 88 Neutron spectroscopy, 145 and US competitiveness, 1-2, 14, 88 New Jersey, 121 Opportunity Indiana, 27 New Zealand Organisation for Economic education, 100, 308-311, 387 Co-operation and Development, immigration policy, 178, 384-385, 15, 38, 45 n.6, 47, 68, 194, 199, 393 212-213. See also individual Nigeria, 82 countries 9/11 attacks, 25, 33-36, 66, 82, 163, foreign students, 387 385, 388, 474, 481, 483 Frascati Manual, 453 No Child Left Behind Act, 95, 113, immigration policies, 177-179, 378, 120, 121, 255, 322 384-385, 391, 393-396 North Carolina School of Science and Programme for International Mathematics (NCSSM), 132-133 Student Assessment, 30-31, 95 Northrop Grumman, 491 spending on R&D, 409, 411, 412

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555 APPENDIX G P test scores, 97, 309, 311, 312, 313, 314 Particle detectors and accelerators, 16, undergraduate degrees awarded, 145 101, 343 Partnership for a New Generation of US competitiveness, 76, 80, 83 Vehicles (PNGV), 440 Postdoctoral scholars Pastore, Pasquale, 195 corporate research, 144 Patents. See also Intellectual property federal funding, 346, 354-356, 431 protection; US Patent and foreign PhDs in US, 387, 389 Trademark Office research appointments, 143-144, academic research and, 186, 188- 354-356 190, 440-442 training, 346, 354-356, 431 applications by country of visa policies, 389 applicant, 75 President’s Council of Advisors on definition, 186 n.12 Science and Technology from federally funded research, 71 (PCAST), 26, 108, 109, 142, immigrant contributions, 382 208, 217 international comparisons, 16, 72, President’s Information Technology 75, 186, 187-188, 190, 191, 192 Advisory Committee, 442 nanotechnology, 449 Presidential Early Career Award for trends in critical technologies, 52, Scientists and Engineers 449 (PECASE), 145, 146, 158 US share, 215 Presidential Innovation Award, 8, 158, Pauli, Wolfgang, 51 509 Pell grants, 366, 369, 371, 373, 376 PricewaterhouseCoopers, 86 Pennsylvania, 121 Product liability and tort reform, 16, Perry, William, 140 185, 456, 461 Petroleum and petrochemical Productivity of science and technology technology, 45, 57-58 research Pharmaceuticals, 47, 48, 54, 86, 186, administrative policies and 190-192, 199 procedures, 415, 416, 421-422 Philippines, test scores, 311 age of investigator and, 143-144, Physical sciences. See also K–12 science 149, 426-431 and mathematics education environment and culture of research doctorates awarded, 80, 331, 351 and, 415, 416-418 employment, 335, 383 growth of US economy, 1, 183-184, funding for research, 90, 93, 137, 205, 206, 459, 460 138, 139, 141, 142, 153 information technology and, 47-48, graduate school enrollments, 330, 183, 201, 417, 459 386 management and review of instrumentation innovations, 145 programs, 415, 416, 419-420 international graduate students, tax credits and, 466 379, 382, 383, 386 Program for International Student minority doctoral degrees, 351 Assessment (PISA), 15, 312 salaries of PhDs, 338 Project Lead the Way (PLTW), 6, 128- teacher qualifications, 95, 97 129 Project 2061, 128

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556 INDEX R Protectionist policies, 27-28. See also Export controls on technology Race/ethnicity. See African Americans; Public colleges and universities. See American Indians/Alaskan also Graduate education in Natives; Asian Americans/Pacific science and engineering; Higher Islanders; Hispanic Americans; education in science and Minorities (underrepresented) in engineering; Undergraduate science and technology education in science and Radio and television, 44, 60, 71 mathematics RAND Corporation, 450 community colleges, 346, 347-348, Raytheon, 491 360, 371, 374, 442 Reagan administration, 105, 475, 485 competition for state resources, 362, Recombinant-DNA technology, 50 365, 375 Recommendations enrollments, 358, 359, 360, 361 cost tables, 501-511 expenditures by type, 363 economic policy incentives for faculty composition and salaries, innovation, 4, 110-111, 192, 260 370-371, 375 of focus groups, 254-263 financial pressures, 357, 359, 361- higher education, 4, 9-10, 110, 256- 366 257 international students, 380 K–12 education, 4-7, 110, 112, 119, quality of education and services, 254-255 357, 358, 362, 370 key challenges, 4 recommended federal actions, 374- national/homeland security, 262 376 research funding, 4, 7-8, 110, 136- research funding, 364 137, 142-143, 145, 157, 258, research institutions, 358 400-401, 408, 411-412, 414 revenue sources, 364, 365 Recycling technologies, 64 state appropriations, 367, 368, 372, Refrigeration technologies, 44, 58-59, 375 60, 61, 64 student aid, 357-358, 366, 369, Research & development. See also 370, 371, 372, 374-376 Academic research; Applied student-faculty ratios, 362, 363, 370 research; Basic research; transfer and articulation Corporate R&D; Federal funding agreements, 371 of R&D; National laboratories; tuition and fees, 368, 374 Researchers and scientists Public health benchmarking, 445-446, 447 competition for education resources, centers of excellence, 433 362, 365, 375 defense- and security-related, 66-67, disease trends, 43 90, 105 n.68, 137, 140-141, 143, globalization and, 221 150, 151-152, 169, 399, 407, practical applications of research, 409, 484, 485-488, 490, 491 51, 53-57 definitions, 69, 105 n.70 spending for aging population, 213, digital cyberinfrastructure, 416, 219-220 417, 442-443 Public–private partnerships, R&D, energy-related, 152-158, 399 106, 116 n.10, 133, 158, 324, environment and culture for, 415, 340, 375, 432, 433-435, 439- 416-418 440, 443

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557 INDEX evaluation of programs, 405, 416, international comparisons, 72, 216 417, 419-420, 436 networking and collaboration facilities and equipment (advanced), initiatives, 82 7-8, 141, 145-149, 169, 403, 509 NIH principal investigator grants, GDP share, 84, 85, 91, 205, 208, 33, 426, 431 412 postdoctoral training, 354-356 interdisciplinary institutes, 433 prizes and awards, 158, 160-161, international collaboration and 341, 417 conferences, 34 productivity, 148, 415-422 international comparisons, 16-17, publication volume and frequency, 74, 137, 208, 412 70, 72, 205, 215 medical innovations, 32 salaries, 144, 338 offshore outsourcing, 210 security clearances, 169 online posting of problems, 417 visa policies, 33-34, 82-83, 104, peer review system, 150, 185 175-177 postdoctoral appointments, 143- work permits and residence status 144, 354-356 for doctoral recipients, 175-177 pressure for short-term results, 150, Ricardo, David, 28 161, 215, 424 Romania, test scores, 310-311 priority topics, 160, 399 Romer, Paul, 29 productivity enhancement, 415-422 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 112 public investment in, see Federal Russia, economic change, 38 funding of R&D Russian Federation security concerns, 34-36 economic growth, 206 spending trends, 137, 208, 215, 412 education, 132, 310-311 Research & development tax credits, spending on R&D, 74 11-12, 88, 89, 184, 185, 192- Rutgers University, 469 197, 203, 398, 408, 413, 424, 457, 465-466, 511. See also S Research and Experimentation Tax Credit Samuelson, Robert J., 73 Research and Experimentation Tax Sarbanes–Oxley Act, 456, 461 Credit, 192 Scanning tunneling microscope, 145 Research universities, 35, 72, 184-185, Scholarship America, 376 379, 386 n.24, 438. See also Schrodinger, Erwin, 51 Academic research Schumpeter, Joseph, 458 Researchers and scientists. See also Science and Mathematics Education Highly skilled workers Task Force, 124 academic positions, 326, 341 Science and technology. See also assistanceships and traineeships, Technological innovation; US 350, 352 competitiveness in science and continuing education, 172-173 technology demand and supply, 29, 164, 168, disillusionment with careers in, 312, 169, 170 314 early-career funding, 7, 136, 143- globalization, 70 145, 146, 149, 150, 161, 326, quantitative policy studies, 414 423, 426-431, 508-509

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558 INDEX Science and Technology Centers South Korea (STCs), 438 advanced instruments and facilities, Science Teacher Institute, 6, 125-126 147 Securities and Exchange Commission, broadband and cellular service, 201, 433, 439 462 SEMATECH, 106, 436 degrees in science or engineering, Semiconductor manufacturing, 15 16, 99, 100, 165, 198, 379 Sensitive but unclassified information, doctoral production, 387, 388 36, 105, 474, 476-479 economic growth, 209, 463 Service sector foreign student enrollments in, 387 international competition, 27-28, graduate education, 76, 78, 79, 217, 453 379, 387, 388 offshore outsourcing of jobs, 28, 91, Incheon Free Economic Zone, 196 209-210, 211, 466-467, 468 innovation environment, 23, 37, 73, Silicon Valley, 176-177, 461 76, 147, 196, 197, 198 Singapore publication volume and frequency, 77 Biopolis, 199 spending on R&D, 74, 411 economic competitiveness, 68 stay rates of students in US, 382 education, 32, 99, 199, 308-311 tax environment, 196, 197 innovation environment, 23, 37, test scores, 310-311 196, 198, 199 Space Act (1958), 440 publication volume and frequency, Spain, 100, 387 77 Speech recognition, 32 Standards, Productivity, and Sputnik, 16, 39, 67, 73, 106, 151, 169, Innovation Board, 199 303, 456, 494 tax policies, 196 Standard-of-living improvements, 59- US R&D in, 86 65, 67, 205, 209, 221-222 Sloan Foundation, 458 Stevenson–Wydler Technology Slovak Republic, test scores, 310-311 Innovation Act of 1986, 439 Slovenia, test scores, 308-311 STMicroelectronics, 195 Small Business Innovation Research Strayer University, 469 (SBIR) program, 88, 90, 433- Structural design, 63-64 434, 435, 437 Student and Exchange Visitor Small Business Technology Transfer Information System (SEVIS), 389 (STTR) program, 433, 434 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), SMART program, 495, 497 43 Smith, Adam, 458 Summer institutes and seminars, 5, Social and behavioral sciences, 81, 93, 117-119, 120-124, 125, 126, 101, 137, 139, 141, 330, 331, 133, 135, 304, 318, 485, 498, 343, 351, 379, 383 504-505 Social security, 219-220, 457 Sun Microsystems, 35 Software Sweden piracy losses, 456, 463, 464 education, 99, 100, 132, 134, 310- services, 76, 199 311, 387 Solow, Robert, 1 n.1, 45-46, 458 spending for R&D, 411 South Africa, 311 US R&D in, 86 Switzerland, 76, 100, 132

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559 INDEX T Teachers. See K–12 science and mathematics teachers Taiwan Teaching degrees in science or engineering, assistanceships, 350, 352 99, 100, 165 inquiry-based approach, 7, 122-123, economic growth, 209 126 graduate education, 79, 217, 379, learning theory and, 66 388 quality of, 95, 123, 316-322 highly skilled workers, 177 Technological innovation. See also incentives for returning scholars, Research & development 173 diffusion rate, 71 innovation environment, 23 drivers for, 39, 59, 106, 415, 455- publication volume and frequency, 456 77 by early-career researchers, 143- stay rates of students in US, 382 144, 149, 426-431 test scores, 311 and economic growth, 14, 41 n.2, Taskforce on the Future of American 43, 45-50, 205-206, 208-209, Innovation, 108 414, 455, 458-459 Tax policies and employment, 29, 49, 50 capital gains, 12, 197, 200 environment for, 2-3, 23, 37, 38, corporate rates, 12, 197, 200, 220, 78, 79, 147, 195, 199, 209, 210, 466 300, 415, 416-418 cost-effectiveness, 193, 203 extension centers, 443 cost of recommendations, 511 financial regulations and, 460-461 education tax credits for employees, foreign emulation of US model, 37, 9, 172-173, 457, 467-468, 485, 72, 78, 208 498, 511 global enterprise, 209-210 employment effects, 194 human capital and, 457 equipment tax credits and incentives for, 11-12, 182-185, 197- depreciation reforms, 197, 200, 201 203, 457, 466 intellectual property protection and, international comparisons, 12, 195- 11, 184, 185, 456-457, 463-465 196, 197-200, 208 negative effects, 42, 57, 59 investment of foundation assets in Nobel Prizes, 145, 157, 427 start-ups, 461, 465-466 outsourcing and, 26, 456, 470-471 joint ventures and, 194, 466 patent trends for critical qualifying expenditures, 197 technologies, 52 R&D tax credits, 11-12, 88, 89, presidential-level challenge, 472 184, 185, 192-197, 203, 398, prizes and awards, 8, 158, 160-161, 408, 413, 424, 457, 465-466, 416, 423, 509 511 product liability and tort reform regulations, 194 and, 185, 456, 461 stock option expensing, 461 productivity gains, 47-48, 50-51 tuition tax credits, 341, 366 and quality of life, 45 Teacher Institutes for the 21st Century, regional innovation hot spots, 458, 121 471

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560 INDEX U research instrumentation, 145-146 surveys of, 445 Undergraduate education in science tax policy and, 11-12, 457, 465-466 and mathematics trade policy and, 456, 462-463 admission criteria, 102, 322, 347 20th-century engineering community colleges, 346, 347-348 achievements, 39, 41-42, 44-45, degrees awarded, 16, 98, 99-101, 52 198, 216, 217, 329, 343, 345, US environment, 24, 37, 182-185, 346 455-472 distribution of institutions by sector, Technology transfer, 10 n.9, 180-181, 359 392, 479 enrollment trends, 163, 164, 165, Telecommunications, 202, 209, 453, 360 456, 462 incentives, 340-341 Telecommuting, 202 innovative programs, 117-119 Telephones, 60, 63, 71, 207 international comparison, 16, 98, Teller, Edward, 35 99, 163, 165, 198, 216, 217, 342 Terrorism, 25, 33-36, 37, 66, 82, 163, internships, 346, 348 220, 385, 388, 474, 477, 481, introductory/transitional science 483, 485, 491 courses, 102-103, 328, 347-348 Texas, AP Incentive Program, 127, learning environment, 330-331, 339 130-131, 133 low-income students, 167-168, 305, Thailand, 99 323, 326, 328, 376 Third International Mathematics and mentoring, 327, 339-340 Science Study, 306-311 minorities (underrepresented), 99, Thomson Venture Economics, 86 117, 118, 166-167, 328, 341, Timken, Henry, 35 343, 344, 345, 346, 348 Timken Company, 35 quality of, 371 Trade, 456 recommended federal actions, 256, export controls on technology, 10, 345-346, 348 34-36, 105, 180-181, 388, 391, retention/attrition rates, 16, 98-99, 474, 485 117, 327, 328, 329-330, 336, free trade policy, 28, 36, 212 371 US deficit in high-technology scholarships and loans for US products, 14, 77, 209, 218, 220, citizens, 6, 9, 165-168, 169, 305, 462-463 323, 326, 340-341, 346, 348, Trade Adjustment Assistance program, 485, 509 457, 468 student interest in careers, 98-104 Transistor, 44, 83, 157 for teachers, 5, 115-119, 346-347 Transportation technology component, 375 equipment manufacturing, 86 trends, 343, 345 systems, 60, 62, 63, 156 women, 99, 166, 328, 341, 343, Treasury Borrowing Committee, 461 344, 345, 346, 348 Trends in International Mathematics Undergraduate Scholar Awards in and Science Study, 95, 130-131, Science, Technology, 132 Engineering, and Mathematics Tuberculosis (TB), 43 (USA-STEM) program, 165-168 Tunisia, 311

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561 INDEX Union College, 120 n.19 US Chamber of Commerce, 142 United Kingdom (UK) US competitiveness in science and degrees in science or engineering, technology 99, 100, 165 advantages of US model, 70-71 disciplinary strengths, 76 advisory committees, 432, 442-443 doctoral production, 387, 388 aging of population and, 213-214 economic competitiveness, 38, 68, alternative viewpoints, 24, 73 206 applied research, 68 graduate education, 79, 82, 387 baseline scenario, 214-219 Highly Skilled Migrant Programme basic research, 68 (HSMP), 82, 178, 179, 385, 391, benchmarking of US research fields, 393, 394, 396 409, 444, 445-446, 447 Science and Engineering Graduate comparative economics, 14-15 Scheme, 396 corporate R&D and, 83-89, 93, spending on R&D, 72 194, 440 tax incentives for R&D, 196 critical technologies, 52, 444, 445, test scores, 308-311 446-447 US R&D in, 86, 196 data collection on research and workforce shortages, 396 n.43 innovation, 444, 445, 452-454 working-age population, 212 Dell model, 460 University of California disciplinary strengths, 76 California Teach program, 5, 117- doctoral production, 70, 72, 78, 79- 118 81, 83, 84, 205, 216, 217 College Prep program, 127 economic performance, 14-18, 68 University of Maryland Baltimore educational challenges, 94-104 County, 469 environment for discovery and, 182- University of Minnesota, 120 n.19 185, 455-472 University of Pennsylvania, 6, 125-126 federal laboratory mission and, 71, University of Tennessee, 120 n.19 92-94 University of Texas at Austin, 117 GDP share of R&D, 84, 85, 91, 205 US businesses. See also Corporate graduate education, 16, 70, 72, 76, R&D 78-83, 102, 216-217, 342, 350, adaptation to technological change, 445 172-173 higher education and training, 16, continuing education for employees, 70, 205, 217, 386-387 172-173, 467, 485, 510 highly skilled workers, 88-89, 178, doctoral employment, 83, 84 205, 216-219 internal control reports, 461 indicators, 14-17 networking by international information technology and, 15, researchers, 176-177 201, 202, 205 offshore outsourcing, 1, 14, 23, 26- international students, 325, 386-387 30, 73, 88 internationally coauthored articles, overseas R&D, 86, 174, 215, 220 75 stock options for employees, 461 K–12 performance, 15-16, 30-31, summer institutes for teachers, 120- 94-98, 303, 306-311, 322 121 location of R&D and, 194 tax policies, 172-173, 197, 200, 220

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562 INDEX market dynamics and, 185, 456, Navy Young Investigator Program, 459-461 145 market share for technology, 77, Office of Defense Programs, 144 209, 217-219 Quadrennial Defense Review national security and, 104-105 (QDR), 486-487 offshore outsourcing of jobs and, spending trends for R&D, 407, 487 1-2, 14, 88 workforce demand and supply, 169, optimistic scenario, 221-222 481, 494-496, 497, 499 patent applications, 75, 215 US Department of Education perspectives, 17 Graduate Assistance in Areas of pessimistic scenario, 219-221 National Need program, 170 public investments and, 72, 89-92, US Department of Energy (DOE) 399 Advanced Research Projects publication volume and frequency, Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), 8, 70, 72, 74, 75, 77-78, 205, 215 152-158, 509 R&D spending, 16-17, 72-73, 74, basic and applied research, 142, 137, 205, 208, 215, 409-411, 153, 156 412 budget for R&D, 411, 484, 488, 489 ranking globally, 205, 206 CRADAs, 440 research institutions, 70, 72 early-researcher grants, 7, 143, 146 scenarios, 214-222 laboratories, 92, 93, 123-124, 147, software services exports, 76-77 156, 481-482, 493 trade deficit, 14, 77, 209, 218, 220, Office of Science, 89, 123-124, 147, 462-463 153 undergraduate education, 98-102, physical science research, 153 342 research centers, 8, 438 US Department of Agriculture, 89, 146, spending for R&D, 402, 406 402, 406, 475, 489 Task Force on the Future of Science US Department of Commerce, 34, 146, Programs, 156 180, 402, 445, 479, 480, 489 teacher professional development US Department of Defense (DOD) program, 123-124 applied research, 486, 487 US Department of Health and Human assessment of critical technologies, Services, 402, 439, 440, 475, 489 450 US Department of Homeland Security, basic research, 7, 89, 90, 92, 137, 25, 141, 402, 409, 481 140, 141, 143, 150, 151, 402, US Department of State, 34, 180 n.21, 426, 431, 484, 486, 487 392 budget for R&D, 142, 143, 150, US Department of the Interior, 402 406, 411, 484, 486, 488, 489 US Department of Transportation, 402, contractors, 490, 491 438, 489 CRADAs, 440 US Department of Veterans Affairs, Early Career Scientist and Engineer 146, 402 Award, 145, 146 US economy Fast Track, 434 aging of population and, 212-214, industry consortia, 436 219-220 National Defense Education Act, alternative viewpoint, 184-185 67, 494-499 capital and, 155

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563 INDEX competitiveness indicators, 14 US Senate Committee on Armed energy issues, 65, 154, 155 Services, 140 foreign direct investment in US, US Steel, 35 207-208, 218, 220 UTeach, 5, 117, 118, 119 GDP trends, 47, 65, 184, 205 high-technology bubble, 29, 164, V 198, 200 higher education and, 358-359 Visa policies. See Immigration policy immigrant contributions, 35, 176- 177 W inflation, 48 information technology and, 183, Wages 205 domestic, 15, 28-29 labor issues, 28, 155, 211-212 education level and, 29 offshoring and, 28 foreign, 24, 29, 73, 88 oil shocks, 155, 183 highly skilled workers, 28-29, 88, per capita income, 1 n.1, 73, 184, 210, 218 204, 218 Washington State productivity growth, 1, 183-184, Assessment of Student Learning 205, 206, 459, 460 (WASL), 122 public concerns, 36-37 Leadership and Assistance for R&D investments and, 47-49, 218 Science Education Reform regional economic development (LASER), 122 programs, 458, 471 Water US Environmental Protection Agency quality, 51, 57 (EPA), 402, 475, 489 supply and distribution, 44, 61 US Food and Drug Administration Weather prediction technologies, 64, (FDA), 190, 191 140 US Geological Survey, 64 Westinghouse, George, 51 US Munitions List, 180 n.21, 479 n.9 Wolf, Frank, 142 US Patent and Trademark Office Womack, Farris, 162 cost of reforms, 510 Women in science and technology data exclusivity laws, 11, 186, 190- graduate school, 102, 328, 349, 192, 456 351, 379 first-inventor-to-file system, 11, influence on innovation, 417 186, 187-188, 192, 455, 464 recruiting and retaining, 389 open review system, 188, 456, 465 undergraduate school, 99, 166, 328, recommended reforms, 185-186, 341, 343, 344, 346, 348 456-457, 464-465 workforce, 343 research exemptions from Workforce. See also Employment; infringement liability, 11, 186, Highly skilled workers 188-190, 457, 464 aging of population and, 212-214 resource allocation for, 11, 186, international comparisons, 212 187, 456, 465 shortfalls in investments in, 30-33 US population structural changes in, 42 aging of, 212-214, 219-220 World Economic Forum, 205 growth projections, 14, 362

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564 INDEX X World Trade Organization, 206, 463 World War II, 1, 14, 32, 35, 37, 39, Xerox PARC, 32, 333, 335 66, 68, 70, 83, 106, 204, 205, 212, 378, 386, 455, 462, 485 World Wide Web, 44, 71 Y WTEC, Inc., 445 Yahoo, 207 Wulf, Wm. A., 182, 458