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FIGURE 3-1 R&D expenditures as a percentage of GNP, 1991-2002. These expenditures are beginning to rise worldwide.

SOURCE: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Main Science and Engineering Indicators. Paris: OECD, 2005.

TABLE 3-1 Publications and Citations in the United States and European Union per Capita and per University Researcher, 1997-2001

 

United States

European Union

Publications

1,265,608

1,347,985

 

Publications/population

4.64

3.60

 

Publications/researcher

6.80

4.30

 

Researchers/population

0.68

0.84

Citations

10,850,549

8,628,152

 

Citations/population

39.75

23.03

 

Citations/researcher

58.33

27.52

Top 1% publications

23,723

14,099

 

Top 1% publications/population

0.09

0.04

 

Top 1% publications/researcher

0.13

0.04

NOTES: Number of publications, citations, and top 1% publications refer to 1997-2001. Population (measured in thousands) and number of university researchers (measured in full-time equivalents) refer to 1999. Each cited paper is allocated once to every author. European Union totals are adjusted to account for duplications by removing papers with multiple EU national authorship to give an accurate net total.

SOURCE: G. Dosi, P. Llerena, and M. S. Labini. “Evaluating and Comparing the Innovation Performance of the United States and the European Union.” Expert report prepared for the Trend Chart Policy Workshop. June 29, 2005. Available at: http://trendchart.cordis.lu/scoreboards/scoreboard2005/pdf/EIS%202005%20EU%20versus%20US.pdf.



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