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FIGURE 3-5 United States trade balance for high-technology products, in millions of dollars, 1990-2003.

SOURCE: Task Force on the Future of American Innovation based on data from US Census Bureau Foreign Trade Statistics, U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services. Compiled by the American Psychological Society Office of Public Affairs.

exports has fallen in the past 20 years from 30 to 17%, while the share for emerging countries in Asia grew from 7 to 27%.22 The United States now has a negative trade balance even for high-technology products (Figure 3-5). That deficit raises concern about our competitive ability in important areas of technology.23

Although US scientists and engineers still lead the world in publishing results, new trends emerge from close examination of the data. From 1988 to 2001, world publishing in science and engineering increased by almost 40%,24 but most of that increase came from Western Europe, Japan, and several emerging East Asian nations (South Korea, China, Singapore, and Taiwan). US publication in science and engineering has remained essen-


For 2004, the dollar value of high-technology imports was $560 billion; the value of high-technology exports was $511 billion.


D. R. Francis. “U.S. Runs a High-Tech Trade Gap.” Christian Science Monitor 96(131) (June 2, 2004):1-1.


National Science Board. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. NSB 04-01. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2004. Chapter 5.

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