. "3 How Is America Doing Now in Science and Technology?." Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2007.
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future
TABLE 3-4 Federally and Privately Funded Early-Stage Venture Capital in Millions of Dollars, 1990-2002
Private Early-Stage Venture Capital
NOTES: Federally funded sources include SBIR and ATP. ATP, Advanced Technology Program; NA, not available; SBIR, Small Business Innovation Research. Data reflect disbursements funded publicly through federal SBIR and ATP and privately through US venture capital funds.
SOURCE: National Science Board. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. NSB 04-01. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2004. P. 6-31.
Several trends cast doubt on our continuing commitment to the above strategy. The first accompanied the end of the Cold War, when reductions in military funding had the perhaps unintentional effect of cutting basic and applied DOD research budgets. The portion of funding DOD devoted to basic research (the “6.1 account”) declined from 3.3% in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to about 1.9% in FY 200548 (Figure 3-12). Military research funding has gradually shifted from basic and applied research toward the more immediate needs of the combat forces.
Public funding for science and engineering rose through the 1990s, but virtually all of the increase went to biomedical research at NIH. Federal spending on the physical sciences remained roughly flat, and increases for mathematics and engineering only slightly surpassed inflation (Figure 3-13). Funding for important areas of the life sciences—plant science, ecology, environmental research—supported by agencies other than NIH also has leveled off. The lack of new funding for research in the physical sci-
National Science Board. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. NSB 04-01. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2004.