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FIGURE 3-16A Percentage of 24-year-olds with first university degrees in the natural sciences or engineering, relative to all first university degree recipients, in 2000 or most recent year available.

SOURCE: Analysis conducted by the Association of American Universities. 2006. National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative based on data from Appendix Table 2-35 in National Science Board. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. NSB 04-01. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2004.

often among the most highly qualified college entrants,56 and they are disproportionately women and students of color. The implication is that potential science or engineering majors become discouraged well before they can join the workforce.57

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S. Tobias. They’re Not Dumb, They’re Different. Stalking the Second Tier. Tucson, AZ: Research Corporation, 1990; E. Seymour and N. Hewitt. Talking About Leaving: Why Undergraduates Leave the Sciences. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997; M. W. Ohland, G. Zhang, B. Thorndyke, and T. J. Anderson. Grade-Point Average, Changes of Major, and Majors Selected by Students Leaving Engineering. 34th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. Session T1G:12-17, 2004.

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M. F. Fox and P. Stephan. “Careers of Young Scientists: Preferences, Prospects, and Reality by Gender and Field.” Social Studies of Science 31(2001):109-122; D. L. Tan. Majors in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Gender and Ethnic Differences in Persistence and Graduation. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma, 2002. Available at: http://www.ou.edu/education/csar/literature/tan_paper3.pdf; Building Engineering and Science Talent (BEST). The Talent Imperative: Diversifying America’s Science and Engineering Workforce. San Diego: BEST, 2004; G. D. Heyman, B. Martyna, and S. Bhatia. “Gender and Achievement-related Beliefs Among Engineering Students.” Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 8(2002):33-45.



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