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8-1

 

Another Point of View: Innovation Incentives,

 

184

8-2

 

A Data-Exclusivity Case Study,

 

191

8-3

 

Finland,

 

198

8-4

 

South Korea,

 

198

8-5

 

Ireland,

 

199

8-6

 

Singapore,

 

199

8-7

 

Canada,

 

200

FIGURES

2-1

 

Incidence of selected diseases in the United States throughout the 20th century,

 

43

2-2

 

US farm labor productivity from 1800 to 2000,

 

46

2-3

 

Gross domestic product during the 20th century,

 

47

2-4

 

Number of patents granted by the United States in the 20th century with examples of critical technologies,

 

52

2-5

 

Megabyte prices and microprocessor speeds, 1976-2000,

 

52

2-6

 

Percentage of children ages 3 to 17 who have access to a home computer and who use the Internet at home, selected years, 1984-2001,

 

53

2-7A

 

Life expectancy at birth, 1000-2000,

 

53

2-7B

 

Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex, in the United States, 1901-2002,

 

54

2-8A

 

Five-year relative cancer survival rates for all ages, 1975-1979, 1985-1989, 1988-2001, and 1995-2001,

 

55

2-8B

 

Heart disease mortality, 1950-2002,

 

55

2-9A

 

Infant mortality, 1915-2000,

 

56

2-9B

 

Maternal mortality, 1915-2000,

 

56

2-10

 

Comparison of growth areas and air pollution emissions, 1970-2004,

 

58

2-11

 

Improvement in US housing and electrification of US homes during the 20th century,

 

61

2-12A

 

Ground transportation: horses to horsepower, 1900 and 1997,

 

62

2-12B

 

Air travel, United States, 1928-2002,

 

62

2-13

 

Modern communication, 1900-1998,

 

63

2-14

 

US primary energy use, 1950-2000,

 

65

3-1

 

R&D expenditures as a percentage of GNP, 1991-2002,

 

74

3-2

 

US patent applications, by country of applicant, 1989-2004,

 

75

3-3

 

Total science and engineering articles with international coauthors, 1988-2001,

 

75

3-4

 

Disciplinary strengths in the United States, the 15 European Union nations in the comparator group (EU15), and the United Kingdom,

 

76



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