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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap F Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff COMMITTEE DAVID E. LONGNECKER, M.D. (Chair), is the Robert Dunning Dripps Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Critical Care at the University of Pennsylvania and a director in the Division of Health Care Affairs at the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), Washington, DC. Dr. Longnecker received his M.D. degree from Indiana University School of Medicine, where he completed residency training in anesthesiology. Following an NIH Special Research Fellowship in cardiovascular physiology at Indiana U., he continued clinical and laboratory research at the NIH Clinical Center, where he served as a clinical associate. Thereafter, he was an assistant professor in the Departments of Anesthesiology and Physiology at the University of Missouri and then the Harold Carron Professor of Anesthesiology at the University of Virginia. He has received numerous NIH research grants and a Research Career Development Award for research involving the effects of anesthetics on the microcirculation, oxygen delivery to tissue, oxygen therapeutics, endothelium-dependent circulatory control, and health services research. Dr. Longnecker is the author or co-author of more than 200 scientific abstracts, original scientific articles, and book chapters and the editor of five textbooks of anesthesiology. He is a member (by election) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (UK) and the Institute of Medicine. He chairs the IOM Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine for Extreme Environments and previously chaired IOM
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap committees on Fluid Resuscitation for Combat Casualties and on the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health. JAMES P. BAGIAN, M.D., P.E., is the director, Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety. From 1980 to 1995, Dr. Bagian served as a NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of two shuttle missions, including the first dedicated Space and Life Sciences Spacelab mission. He was also a lead investigator for both the Challenger and Columbia accidents. Dr. Bagian focuses on applications in aerospace systems, notably crew survival and physiological adaptation issues that impact aviation and space flight operations, as well as environmental technology. He has also developed and implemented, on national and international bases, systems-based solutions to improve patient safety. Dr. Bagian is a member of IOM and NAE and has served on or chaired numerous committees of the National Academies. ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Ph.D., is the deputy division leader for science and technology in the International, Space and Response Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Until June 2005, she served as the section leader for the Micro and Nanotechnology Center, Lawrence Livermore’s engineering research center for fabricating small sensors and devices. She earned an undergraduate degree in psychology from the University of Chicago and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley. She also holds an MBA from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Business. Dr. Cantwell began her career building life support systems for manned space missions with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was a member of the NRC Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space (1996–1997). She is currently a member of the IOM Committee on NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. VALERIE GAWRON, Ph.D., is a technology fellow at General Dynamics in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Gawron received a Ph.D. in engineering psychology from the University of Illinois and master’s degrees in experimental psychology, industrial engineering, and business administration from the State University of New York. She is a fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and an associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, with previous NRC service. She was a mem-
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap ber of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and is now a member of the Army Science Board. Currently, her research focuses on the cognitive and environmental effects of human performance, with a specialization in situational awareness, workload testing, and evaluation. She is also the chair of the Science and Technology Working Group of NASA’s Space–Human Factors Engineering Group. CHRISTOPHER A. HART, J.D., is assistant administrator for system safety at the FAA. Mr. Hart holds a B.A. and an M.A. in aerospace and mechanical science from Princeton University. He also earned his Juris Doctor from Harvard Law School. He holds a commercial pilot’s license with multi-engine and instrument ratings as well. Mr. Hart served as a member of the National Transportation Safety Board (1990–1993), where he had specialized interests in human factors and the impact of automation on transportation systems. He was nominated for this committee because of his expertise in the technical aspects of risk assessment and decision making, and his familiarity with aerospace technology. CHARLES E. LAND, Ph.D., is a senior investigator with the National Cancer Institute (NCI). He received his Ph.D. in statistics from the University of Chicago, studied risk of radiation-related cancer at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, and taught statistics at Oregon State University before joining the NCI in 1975. His interests center on quantification of radiation-related cancer risk based on epidemiological studies of exposed populations, the role of uncertain assumptions needed to obtain such estimates, and the public policy implications of uncertainty in estimated risk, especially as it bears on risks at low doses. Dr. Land has served on expert committees of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Council on Radiological Protection and Measurements, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and other organizations. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association. Dr. Land was nominated for this committee because of his expertise in the statistical analysis of cancer risk from radiation exposure. DANIEL R. MASYS, M.D., is professor and chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics, and professor of medicine at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Previously he served as director of biomedical informatics and professor of medicine at the University of California, San
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap Diego School of Medicine. An honors graduate of Princeton University and the Ohio State University College of Medicine, he completed postgraduate training in internal medicine, hematology, and medical oncology at the University of California, San Diego and the Naval Regional Medical Center, San Diego. Previously, he served as chief of the International Cancer Research Data Bank of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and from 1986 through 1994 was director of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications. In this capacity, Dr. Masys served as the chief program architect and first director of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) that was established within the National Library of Medicine in 1987 to support molecular databases and computational tools. Dr. Masys is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine in medicine, hematology, and medical oncology. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, a fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics, and a member of the Institute of Medicine. He has served as a consultant to the NASA Life Science Informatics program and is an active instrument-rated pilot. BRUCE M. MCCANDLESS II, M.B.A., is a veteran astronaut, having served in that capacity for 24 years, and made two flights in the Space Shuttle. He performed two EVAs or “space walks,” making the first solo flights in the Manned Maneuvering Unit. He is an experienced SCUBA diver and has been involved in numerous hypobaric activities within NASA. He is currently an aerospace engineer and Principal Research Scientist within the Civil Space product area of Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company in Denver, Colorado. Mr. McCandless has directed several space technology risk assessment efforts, including the first phase of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter nuclear-fission powered spacecraft studies. He was nominated for appointment to this committee because of his wide range of expertise in analyzing and managing risk associated with failure of human support technology systems in space. TOM S. NEUMAN, M.D., is professor of medicine and surgery, director of the Hyperbaric Medicine Center, associate director of the Department of Emergency Medicine, and attending physician, Emergency Department at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center. A graduate of Cornell University, he received his M.D. from the New York University School of Medicine in 1971, followed by internship and residency in internal medicine at Bellevue Hospital. Dr. Neuman is board certified in
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap internal medicine, pulmonary disease, occupational medicine, undersea and hyperbaric medicine, and emergency medicine. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American College of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Neuman has been a leader in the field of the physiology and medicine of diving throughout his career. He previously served on two IOM committees, which published the following reports: Review of NASA’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health and Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions. He was nominated for this committee for his knowledge of undersea and hyperbaric medicine and related occupation health risks. THOMAS F. OLTMANNS, Ph.D., is the Edgar James Swift Professor of Arts and Sciences in the Department of Psychology at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. He previously served as professor of psychology and psychiatric medicine and director of clinical training in psychology at the University of Virginia. He has also served as professor of psychology at Indiana University. Dr. Oltmanns received his undergraduate degree from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and his Ph.D. at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has authored 5 books and more than 70 journal articles. Dr. Oltmanns is past president of the Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology and is a consulting editor for the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and a member of the editorial boards of Psychological Bulletin and Journal of Personality Disorders. His research has been supported by numerous grants, and he is currently co-principal investigator on a large grant looking at peer assessment of personality traits and pathology. He has served on two different grant review committees for the National Institute of Mental Health and is a member of NASA’s Astronaut Selection Psychiatric Standards Working Group. LAWRENCE A. PALINKAS, Ph.D., is a professor in the School of Social Work at the University of Southern California. Dr. Palinkas serves as the deputy chief officer of the Life Sciences Standing Scientific Committee of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). He has more than 15 years of experience in studying behavioral adaptation in the Antarctic. He has also been active in translating Antarctic research for use in developing effective countermeasures to long-duration missions in space. Dr. Palinkas served as a member of the National Academy of Science’s Committee on Space Biology and Medicine from 1997–2000. In 1997–1998, he served as chair of the Behavior and Performance Panel and principal
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap author of the chapter on Behavior and Performance in the committee’s 1998 report A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (National Academy Press). He also reviewed NASA’s current research efforts in behavior and performance in the committee’s 2000 report Review of NASA’s Biomedical Research Program (National Academy Press). He currently serves as chair of the External Advisory Council of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and as a member of the Behavior and Performance Integrated Product Team at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. JAMES PAWELCZYK, Ph.D., is an associate professor of kinesiology, physiology, and medicine at the Pennsylvania State University. He was a payload specialist on the STS-90 (Neurolab) mission, which flew in 1998 with a focus on neuroscience. Dr. Pawelczyk was a member of NASA’s Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee, Office of Biological and Physical Research, 1998–2002, and a member of ReMaP Task Force, 2002, which was charged with establishing priorities for research on the International Space Station. He has received NASA funding as an individual principal investigator and a project leader on center grants and contracts (including international collaboration) since 1993. Dr. Pawelczyk’s research areas include central neural control of the cardiovascular system and compensatory mechanisms to conditioning and deconditioning. He was nominated for this committee because of his familiarity with NASA and space flight, as well as for his medical expertise in the effects of space travel on human systems. BRUCE S. RABIN, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor of pathology and psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, medical director of the Clinical Immunopathology Laboratory, and medical director of the Healthy Lifestyle Program. His research areas of interest and capability are in the interrelationship between stress, immune function, and health. These are critical to several concerns of the Bioastronautics Critical Roadmap. Dr. Rabin is past president of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. He has served on a number of government panels to promote research in mind–body interactions. Dr. Rabin was nominated for this committee because of his interdisciplinary research into the effects of stress on human body systems, including several disciplines germane to this study such as immunology and human behavior changes.
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap KARLENE ROBERTS, Ph.D., is a professor in the Haas School of Business of the University of California, Berkeley and a research psychologist at Berkeley’s Institute of Industrial Relations. Dr. Roberts has expertise in the design and management of organizations and systems of organizations in which errors can have catastrophic consequences. The results of her research have been applied to programs in numerous organizations including the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard, the Federal Aviation’s Air Traffic Control System, NASA, and the medical industry. Dr. Roberts has published on a wide range of organizational risk management issues. She is a fellow in the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Academy of Management. Dr. Roberts was nominated for this committee because of her expertise in human psychology and behavior and organization risk management strategies. CAROL E. H. SCOTT-CONNER, M.D., Ph.D., is professor, Department of Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Dr. Scott-Conner received her M.D. from the New York University School of Medicine in 1976 and stayed at NYU for her surgical residency, which she completed in 1981. After leaving NYU, she joined the faculty at Marshall University and then moved to the University of Mississippi. During her tenure there she earned a Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Kentucky and an M.B.A. Since 1995, she has been professor and head of surgery at the University of Iowa. Dr. Scott-Conner has been active on 22 editorial boards, and has authored more than 200 original papers, abstracts, reviews, and book chapters. She holds memberships in many elected surgical societies and has frequently served in leadership positions. She previously served as a member of the IOM Committee on Space Medicine. Dr. Scott-Conner was nominated to this committee because of her broad expertise in clinical care related to astronaut health and risk issues. RHEA SEDDON, M.D., is the assistant chief medical officer for the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee, where she has worked extensively on patient safety and quality improvement. A former three-flight veteran astronaut for NASA, she logged more than 722 hours in space. She was a mission specialist on STS-51D and STS-40 and was the payload commander on STS-58. Dr. Seddon also served in several other capacities at NASA, namely as technical assistant to the director of flight crew operations and special adviser for Shuttle/Mir scientific payloads and
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap as a member of NASA’s Aerospace Medical Advisory Committee and the International Bioethics Task Force. After earning a B.A. in physiology at the University of California at Berkeley and an M.D. from the University of Tennessee, Dr. Seddon went on to complete an internship and residency in general surgery in Memphis. She was nominated to this committee because of her familiarity with NASA and manned space flight and her clinical background in patient care. JAY R. SHAPIRO, M.D., professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University, formerly served as director of the Interdepartmental Center for Space Medicine, Uniformed Services University and is currently director of the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Clinic at the Kennedy-Krieger Institute. Dr. Shapiro also served as team lead for bone, National Space Biomedical Research Institute. Dr. Shapiro has many years of direct experience with NASA research and clinical countermeasures related to bone and muscle loss in a microgravity environment. He is nominated for this committee because of his historical perspective on NASA risk management of bone loss and his expertise in a wide range of clinical countermeasures, including the application of in-flight drug trials related to bone loss. THOMAS TEN HAVE, Ph.D., is professor of biostatistics with training in2:50 PM 4/4/06 biostatistics at the University of Michigan (B.A. in statistics, M.P.H. and Ph.D. in biostatistics). He has statistical research interests in categorical data analysis, random effects models, informative dropout, treatment non-adherence, and designs and statistical analyses to accommodate patient preferences and adaptive treatment regimes. This methods research melds with his collaborations in psychiatry, family medicine, addiction research, and disparities research, with a focus on multi-site randomized and observational studies. Dr. Ten Have’s research is facilitated by his roles as the principal investigator of National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded R01 and T32 training grants and the director of the Biostatistics-Data Core and co-investigator of the NIMH-sponsored Advanced Center for Intervention Services Research (ACISR) for Depression in the Aged. Finally, Dr. Ten Have is strongly committed to affirmative action in the recruitment of students, faculty members, investigators, study participants, and research topics. Among his contributions to the profession, Dr. Ten Have is a fellow of the American Statistical Association and associate editor of Biometrics.
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap IOM COMMITTEE STAFF RICARDO A. MOLINS, Ph.D., is a senior program officer. Since joining the IOM in 1999, he has been the study director of the Food Chemicals Codex with the Food and Nutrition Board. He has been study director also for various studies dealing with food safety, including the landmark study on Scientific Criteria to Ensure Safe Food, and with the development of specifications for high-energy, nutrient-dense, emergency relief rations. He has also contributed to the work of the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine with the Board on Health Sciences Policy. Dr. Molins received his Ph.D. in food science from Iowa State University, where he was later assistant and associate professor of food microbiology. He has worked on agro-industrial development for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in Central America and for the Joint Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/International Atomic Energy Agency, based in Austria, on food irradiation and food safety projects and research programs in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. He is the author of 46 scientific papers, 3 books, and numerous abstracts and has offered conferences on food safety in 24 countries. ANDREW M. POPE, Ph.D., is director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy in the Institute of Medicine. With a Ph.D. in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests are in science policy, biomedical ethics, and the environmental and occupational influences on human health. During his tenure at the National Academies and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed numerous studies on topics that range from injury control, disability prevention, and biologic markers, to the protection of human subjects of research, NIH priority-setting processes, organ procurement and transplantation policy, and the role of science and technology in countering terrorism. Dr. Pope is the recipient of the NAS President’s Special Achievement Award and the IOM’s Cecil Award. JUDITH L. ESTEP is a senior program assistant at the Institute of Medicine. She has worked at The National Academies/Institute of Medicine since 1986 and has provided administrative support for more than 35 published reports.
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap BENJAMIN HAMLIN received his bachelor’s degree in biology from the College of Wooster in 1993 and a degree in health sciences from the University of Akron in 1996. He then worked as a surgeon’s assistant in the fields of vascular, thoracic, and general surgery for several years before joining the National Academies in 2000. As a research assistant for the Division on Earth and Life Studies at the National Academies, Mr. Hamlin worked with the Board on Radiation Effects Research on projects studying the health effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations on the human body. He was also involved with the U.S. Bangladesh Advisory Council, an organization that promotes governmental cooperation between the United States and Bangladesh on matters of trade and health care. He served as a research assistant with the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine through April 2004. ERIN MCCARVILLE joined the National Academies in 2003 as a project assistant for the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy. She worked as the senior project assistant for the NASA project through July 2005. Ms. McCarville received her bachelor’s degree in biology and public policy from Pomona College in Los Angeles, California. Before working at the academies, she conducted research on rural environmental health for the Center for Community Action and Environmental Justice in Los Angeles. She also worked as a teaching and research assistant for Pomona College’s Animal Physiology Department, as a plant biology researcher for the Chicago Botanic Gardens, and as an intern for Senator Barbara Boxer. VILIJA TEEL works as the senior project assistant for the Board on Health Sciences Policy. She joined the Bioastronautics Roadmap project in July 2005. Ms. Teel also provides support to the Committee on Ethical Considerations for Revisions to DHHS Regulations for Protection of Prisoners Involved in Research. Prior to joining IOM, she worked as a program assistant for research, evaluation and development in the School of Language Studies within the Foreign Service Institute. Ms. Teel earned a B.A. in English/linguistics from Vilnius University, Lithuania. In addition to English, she has a good grasp of many other languages. LISA M. VANDEMARK, Ph.D., worked as a senior program officer for the NASA project until May 2005. Her work focused on helping NASA
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A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap understand the risk associated with manned space flight. As a geographer, she acted as consultant on education, training, and capacity building to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). She has a Ph.D. in geography from Rutgers University. Prior to joining the staff of the IOM, Dr. Vandemark was a staff officer at the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources of the National Research Council and a research associate at Rutgers University. MELVIN H. WORTH, Jr., M.D., is a scholar-in-residence at the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Worth completed his surgery residency at New York University–Bellevue in 1961 and remained on that faculty for 18 years. He founded the Bellevue Trauma Service in 1966 and continued as director until 1979, when he left to become director of surgery at Staten Island University Hospital. He served for 15 years with the New York State Office of Professional Medical Conduct and 8 years as a member of the New York State Hospital Review and Planning Council (for which he was chair in 1993). He is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, the American College of Gastroenterology, and the International Society for Surgery and holds memberships in the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the Society for Critical Care Medicine, the Association for Academic Surgery, the New York Surgical Society (of which he was president in 1979), and other academic and professional organizations. Dr. Worth retains his appointments at New York University and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and has served as a clinical professor of surgery at SUNY–Downstate Medical Center. He has served on two editorial boards and has authored one textbook and 60 original articles. Dr. Worth has participated in IOM studies on Fluid Resuscitation for Combat Casualties as senior adviser to the Committee on Creating a Vision for Space Medicine During Travel Beyond Earth Orbit and the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health.
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