committees on Fluid Resuscitation for Combat Casualties and on the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health.

JAMES P. BAGIAN, M.D., P.E., is the director, Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Patient Safety. From 1980 to 1995, Dr. Bagian served as a NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of two shuttle missions, including the first dedicated Space and Life Sciences Spacelab mission. He was also a lead investigator for both the Challenger and Columbia accidents. Dr. Bagian focuses on applications in aerospace systems, notably crew survival and physiological adaptation issues that impact aviation and space flight operations, as well as environmental technology. He has also developed and implemented, on national and international bases, systems-based solutions to improve patient safety. Dr. Bagian is a member of IOM and NAE and has served on or chaired numerous committees of the National Academies.

ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Ph.D., is the deputy division leader for science and technology in the International, Space and Response Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Until June 2005, she served as the section leader for the Micro and Nanotechnology Center, Lawrence Livermore’s engineering research center for fabricating small sensors and devices. She earned an undergraduate degree in psychology from the University of Chicago and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley. She also holds an MBA from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Business. Dr. Cantwell began her career building life support systems for manned space missions with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was a member of the NRC Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space (1996–1997). She is currently a member of the IOM Committee on NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap.

VALERIE GAWRON, Ph.D., is a technology fellow at General Dynamics in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Gawron received a Ph.D. in engineering psychology from the University of Illinois and master’s degrees in experimental psychology, industrial engineering, and business administration from the State University of New York. She is a fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and an associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, with previous NRC service. She was a mem-

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