understand the risk associated with manned space flight. As a geographer, she acted as consultant on education, training, and capacity building to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). She has a Ph.D. in geography from Rutgers University. Prior to joining the staff of the IOM, Dr. Vandemark was a staff officer at the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources of the National Research Council and a research associate at Rutgers University.


MELVIN H. WORTH, Jr., M.D., is a scholar-in-residence at the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Worth completed his surgery residency at New York University–Bellevue in 1961 and remained on that faculty for 18 years. He founded the Bellevue Trauma Service in 1966 and continued as director until 1979, when he left to become director of surgery at Staten Island University Hospital. He served for 15 years with the New York State Office of Professional Medical Conduct and 8 years as a member of the New York State Hospital Review and Planning Council (for which he was chair in 1993). He is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, the American College of Gastroenterology, and the International Society for Surgery and holds memberships in the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the Society for Critical Care Medicine, the Association for Academic Surgery, the New York Surgical Society (of which he was president in 1979), and other academic and professional organizations. Dr. Worth retains his appointments at New York University and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and has served as a clinical professor of surgery at SUNY–Downstate Medical Center. He has served on two editorial boards and has authored one textbook and 60 original articles. Dr. Worth has participated in IOM studies on Fluid Resuscitation for Combat Casualties as senior adviser to the Committee on Creating a Vision for Space Medicine During Travel Beyond Earth Orbit and the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health.



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