ever, the committee recognizes that the ongoing changes represent progress that is both necessary and appropriate, and it acknowledges the continued focus on this approach as a management tool for bioastronautics. The committee’s comments are, therefore, based on the Bioastronautics Roadmap version of February 9, 2005, the current version at the time of this writing (NASA, 2005), referred to as the BR. The February 2005 baseline version of the BR used by the committee for its review is enclosed as a CD in the cover of this report. Both the baseline BR and the interactive version that relates to specific risks and Design Reference Missions are available on-line at http://bioastroroadmap.nasa.gov.

The Bioastronautics Roadmap was developed collaboratively by NASA’s Office of Biological and Physical Research and the Office of Space Flight with the concurrence of the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer. NASA describes the document as “the framework used to identify and assess the risks of crew exposure to the hazardous environments of space” (NASA, 2005). According to the baseline BR, the BR also “guides the prioritized research and technology development that, coupled with operational space medicine, will inform” the following:

  1. The development of medical standards and policies

  2. The specifications of requirements for the human system

  3. The implementation of medical operations

The BR also provides information that helps establish operating bands—or exposure limits—for humans exposed to risks during space travel and develop countermeasures to maintain the health and functioning of the crew within those limits and technologies to improve the safety and productivity of human space flight. Operating bands represent an acceptable range of performance or functioning, specifically for life support and habitation systems. Exposure limits describe an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a human physiological or behavioral parameter that impacts the performance of assigned tasks or has implications for lifetime medical status.

The BR was created to facilitate and support the successful accomplishment of the three Design Reference Missions described in the President’s space initiative of January 14, 2004 (White House, 2004). The stated goal of the BR is “to reduce risk through effective and efficient mitigation solutions developed from a focused research and technology development strategy” (NASA, 2005). The contents of the BR are the identified

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