riencing chronic stress and to interact productively as a member of a crew (Santy, 1994).

Another option would be to expand the range of mental disorders that are considered as part of the select-out criteria. People with personality disorders often make their own interpersonal problems worse because they are rigid, inflexible, and unable to adapt to the social challenges they face (Chen et al., 2004; Pagano et al., 2004), and they create problems for those around them as well. Some personality disorders, including narcissism (Morf and Rhodewalt, 2001), would be expected to disrupt group cohesion and interfere with interpersonal relations involving other members of the space crew as well as Earth-based support personnel.

The committee concludes that empirical evaluation of current (and proposed) select-in and select-out procedures must be conducted among members of the astronaut corps during all phases of training and mission preparation. At present, the BR offers no guidelines for improving select-out procedures to reduce the likelihood of human performance failure due to poor psychosocial adaptation, neurobehavioral changes, cognitive overload, or disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms. Additional screening criteria that might benefit from further research include history of family disorders, childhood experiences of abuse or trauma, and stress reactivity.

Two other approaches for screening should also be given further consideration in crew selection. One involves the method of selection of specific crew members from among the pool of eligible astronauts. At present, these decisions appear to be made with little consideration of an external professional evaluation of crew compatibility.

Recommendation 2.6

The committee recommends that the Astronaut Office and representative flight surgeons be consulted regarding the crew selection process in order to place greater emphasis on the roles of crew compatibility and team performance in overall mission success.

The second approach involves the use of analog environments and behavioral challenges to evaluate individual and team performance. After selection of a specific set of crew members and during their training for a mission, the crew should be assessed while it responds to carefully designed stressful experiences that would mimic events that could occur during a flight. These experiences might provide an opportunity to observe ways in



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