SOURCE: AICR (2004).
endometrium (IOM, 2003). In some cases, being overweight has been shown to reduce survival. Overweight and obese women with breast cancer, for example, have poorer survival compared with thinner women (Kroenke et al., 2005; Chlebowski, 2005a). Diminished survival among obese women with breast cancer may be caused by higher concentrations of tumor-promoting hormones found in association with higher degrees of adiposity (McTiernan et al., 2003). Obesity also has been found to be a poor prognostic factor for prostate cancer (Freedland et al., 2004; Amling et al., 2004). To date, relatively little research on interventions to help cancer survivors lose weight has been conducted, and much of it has been confined to survivors of breast cancer (Djuric et al., 2002; Jenkins et al., 2003; Jen et al., 2004). Interventions to improve self-confidence may be needed because some research suggests that low self-esteem among overweight and obese breast cancer survivors interferes with their ability to adopt healthy lifestyles (Pinto et al., 2002). As in healthy populations, exercise also has been found to play a major role in weight management of cancer survivors (Goodwin et al., 1998).
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of diverse medical and health care systems, therapies, and products that are not cur-