BOX 3-15
Nutritional Guidelines for Cancer Survivors from the American Institute for Cancer Research

  1. Choose predominantly plant-based diets rich in a variety of vegetables and fruits.

  2. If eaten at all, limit intake of red meat to less than 3 ounces daily.

  3. Limit consumption of fatty foods, particularly those of animal origin. Choose modest amounts of appropriate vegetable oils.

  4. Limit consumption of salted foods and use of cooking and table salt. Use herbs and spices to season foods.

  5. Limit alcoholic drinks to less than two drinks a day for men and one for women.

  6. Do not eat charred food. Consume the following only occasionally: meat and fish grilled in direct flame, and cured and smoked meats.

  7. Avoid being overweight and limit weight gain during adulthood. Take an hour’s brisk walk or similar exercise daily.

SOURCE: AICR (2004).

endometrium (IOM, 2003). In some cases, being overweight has been shown to reduce survival. Overweight and obese women with breast cancer, for example, have poorer survival compared with thinner women (Kroenke et al., 2005; Chlebowski, 2005a). Diminished survival among obese women with breast cancer may be caused by higher concentrations of tumor-promoting hormones found in association with higher degrees of adiposity (McTiernan et al., 2003). Obesity also has been found to be a poor prognostic factor for prostate cancer (Freedland et al., 2004; Amling et al., 2004). To date, relatively little research on interventions to help cancer survivors lose weight has been conducted, and much of it has been confined to survivors of breast cancer (Djuric et al., 2002; Jenkins et al., 2003; Jen et al., 2004). Interventions to improve self-confidence may be needed because some research suggests that low self-esteem among overweight and obese breast cancer survivors interferes with their ability to adopt healthy lifestyles (Pinto et al., 2002). As in healthy populations, exercise also has been found to play a major role in weight management of cancer survivors (Goodwin et al., 1998).

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of diverse medical and health care systems, therapies, and products that are not cur-



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