Essential to survivorship care is a patient-centered approach, including responsiveness to patients’ needs, effective communication and information sharing, encouragement of the adoption of healthy lifestyles, and assistance in accessing community support services. Survivorship care has a focus on prevention—identifying treatable cancer recurrences, second cancers, and late effects; ensuring access to effective interventions; and helping patients to improve their quality of life.

Who Should Receive Survivorship Care?

Every individual should receive survivorship care following their treatment. The need for specific services will vary from survivor to survivor because of the heterogeneity of cancer and late effects. Survivors of early-stage cancer whose treatment was limited to surgery may require minimal follow-up care. In contrast, survivors with more advanced disease treated with combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapies may need long-term rehabilitative and supportive care. Some individuals treated for a predisposition to cancer (e.g., those who have genetic mutations, such as BRCA mutations) may also benefit from survivorship care.

When Does Survivorship Care Start and End?

An organized plan for survivorship care should be developed by the time primary treatment ends.1 Discussions of long-term effects of cancer and its treatment often begin at the time when treatment decisions are made. Later in the course of care, discussion of a survivorship care plan can provide hope and practical guidance. The transition from primary treatment into survivorship care is not always clear cut because some individuals require ongoing treatment such as adjuvant therapy. The committee viewed this period of adjuvant therapy as within the spectrum of survivorship care. Survivorship care lasts until recurrence, a second cancer, or death. Individuals who experience a recurrence or second cancer may reenter the acute phase of care for a time and then resume survivorship care. Individuals with chronic or intermittent disease may receive ongoing treatment for their disease, but benefit from survivorship care as they live with their disease (Figure 4-1). These individuals are generally under the long-term care of an oncology provider who can help ensure that survivorship needs are met. Some individuals who cease treatment prematurely may not benefit from a care plan if they are not formally discharged from care.


Primary treatment is the first course of therapy provided with the intention to cure cancer.

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