Empower and prepare patients to manage their health and health care.
Assure the delivery of effective, efficient clinical care and self-management support.
Promote clinical care that is consistent with scientific evidence and patient preferences.
Organize patient and population data to facilitate efficient and effective care.
The chronic disease model has been implemented in primary care practices to improve care for individuals with diabetes, asthma, and congestive heart failure and has had some success in terms of improved outcome measures and reduced health care costs (Bodenheimer et al., 2002a,b). The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has supported several demonstration programs to improve care coordination and disease management in Medicare (MedPAC, 2004b). The Medicare Coordinated Care Demonstration, for example, is testing models of coordinated care to improve quality of services and manage Medicare expenditures at 15 sites, with 1 site focused on cancer care (CMS, 2004). The cancer care coordination project provides Medicare beneficiaries in South Florida with an oncology nurse advocate to help them understand their disease and better manage the side effects and symptoms of cancer and its treatment (Quality Oncology Inc., 2003).
Improvements in cancer care coordination could also come from initiatives aimed at improving care for the chronically ill. For example, the Academic Chronic Care Collaborative, an initiative of the American Association of Medical Colleges Institute for Improving Clinical Care, has been launched in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s national chronic illness care program. The collaborative involves 22 academic medical centers that will undergo extensive redesign of their chronic care strategies (AAMC, 2005).
The complexities of the health care system can be particularly daunting for those whose language is not English, who are uninsured, who reside in a rural area, or who have other difficulties in accessing care. One mechanism that is being evaluated to reduce cancer health disparities is “Patient Navigation” (Freeman and Clanton, 2004). A patient navigator is a trained patient advocate and guide who helps individuals and their families navigate their way through the maze of doctors’ offices, clinics, hospitals, outpatient centers, insurance and payment systems, patient support organizations, and other components of the health care system (NCI, 2004). Navigation services include: facilitating communication and information exchange for patients; coordinating care among medical service providers; and arranging for financial support, transportation, or child care services.