Essential Components of Survivorship Care

  1. Prevention of recurrent and new cancers, and of other late effects;

  2. Surveillance for cancer spread, recurrence, or second cancers; assessment of medical and psychosocial late effects;

  3. Intervention for consequences of cancer and its treatment, for example: medical problems such as lymphedema and sexual dysfunction; symptoms, including pain and fatigue; psychological distress experienced by cancer survivors and their caregivers; and concerns related to employment, insurance, and disability; and

  4. Coordination between specialists and primary care providers to ensure that all of the survivor’s health needs are met.

cal and psychosocial needs that may follow cancer treatment will help both survivors and their health care providers to ensure that appropriate assessments are completed and available interventions employed. The constellation of cancer’s long-term and late effects varies by cancer type, treatment modality, and individual characteristics, but there are common patterns of symptoms and conditions that must be recognized so that health and well-being can be improved.

Recommendation 1: Health care providers, patient advocates, and other stakeholders should work to raise awareness of the needs of cancer survivors, establish cancer survivorship as a distinct phase of cancer care, and act to ensure the delivery of appropriate survivorship care.

Cancer patients and their advocates can call attention to their survivorship experiences and the need for change. The leadership of organizations representing physicians, nurses, and psychosocial care providers can collaborate to improve care. Third-party payors of health care and health plans can improve access to needed services through reimbursement policies and improvements in systems of care. Employers can ensure fair workplace policies and accommodations. Sponsors of research can improve the opportunities to increase what we know about survivorship and appropriate care. Congress and state legislatures can enact policies and ensure the support needed to improve survivorship care and quality of life.


The recognition of cancer survivorship as a distinct phase of the cancer trajectory is not enough. A strategy is needed for the ongoing clinical care of cancer survivors. There are many opportunities for improving the care of

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement