sentinel lymph node biopsy

—removal and examination of the sentinel node(s) (the first lymph node(s) to which cancer cells are likely to spread from a primary tumor). To identify the sentinel lymph node(s), the surgeon injects a radioactive substance, blue dye, or both near the tumor. The surgeon then uses a scanner to find the sentinel lymph node(s) containing the radioactive substance or looks for the lymph node(s) stained with dye. The surgeon then removes the sentinel node(s) to check for the presence of cancer cells.


—the presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues.


—inspection of the lower colon using a thin, lighted tube called a sigmoidoscope. Samples of tissue or cells may be collected for examination under a microscope. Also called proctosigmoidoscopy.


—the extent of a cancer in the body. Staging is usually based on the size of the tumor, whether lymph nodes contain cancer, and whether the cancer has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.

stem cell transplantation

—a method of replacing immature blood-forming cells that were destroyed by cancer treatment. The stem cells are given to the person after treatment to help the bone marrow recover and continue producing healthy blood cells.

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program

—a program of the National Cancer Institute that collects and publishes cancer incidence and survival data from 14 population-based cancer registries and three supplemental registries covering approximately 26 percent of the U.S. population.


—an individual is considered a cancer survivor from the time of cancer diagnosis through the balance of his or her life, according to the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship and the NCI Office of Cancer Survivorship. Family members, friends, and caregivers are also impacted by the survivorship experience and are therefore included in this definition. In this report, the committee chose to focus on cancer survivors who are in the post-treatment phase.

survivorship care

—as defined in this report, survivorship care is a distinct phase of care for cancer survivors that includes four components: (1) prevention and detection of new cancers and recurrent cancer; (2) surveillance for cancer spread, recurrence, or second cancers; (3) intervention for consequences of cancer and its treatment; and (4) coordination between specialists and primary care providers to ensure that all of the survivor’s health needs are met.

survivorship research

—cancer survivorship research encompasses the physical, psychosocial, and economic sequelae of cancer diagnosis and its treatment among both pediatric and adult survivors of cancer. It also includes within its domain, issues related to health care delivery, access, and follow-up care, as they relate to survivors. Survivorship research

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