The short-term effects of diminished circulating levels of estrogen that occur with menopause include:
Hot flashes, sweats, and palpitations (referred to as “vasomotor symptoms”)
Vaginal dryness and sexual changes, including pain with sexual intercourse
Musculoskeletal complaints such as joint pains and skin changes
Because chemotherapy causes an abrupt change in menopausal status, symptoms can be more severe than those associated with the usual transition that with normal aging lasts from 5 to 10 years (Burstein and Winer, 2000; Ganz, 2001b; Crandall et al., 2004).
Menopausal symptoms are very prevalent among breast cancer survivors, according to the Cancer and Menopause Study, a study designed to