also differs in that its reviews evaluate evidence accompanying an entity’s application for review whereas Cochrane, AHRQ EPCs, and Campbell reviews (described below) consist of an independent search for all evidence on a particular generic intervention. Originally developed to evaluate substance-use prevention interventions, the scope of NREPP’s reviews has been expanded to include both prevention and treatment of all mental and addictive disorders (SAMHSA, 2005). In a Federal Register notice in August 2005, SAMHSA solicited formal public comment on NREPP’s review processes and criteria (SAMHSA, 2005).

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s (AHRQ) Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs)

Through AHRQ, the United States funds 13 EPCs that address topics particularly relevant to the Medicare and Medicaid programs. One EPC specializes in technology assessments for the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services; another supports the work of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EPC reviews are developed from comprehensive syntheses and analyses of the scientific literature, and can include metaanalyses and cost analyses. EPCs also provide technical assistance to stakeholders to help translate the reports into quality improvement tools, curriculums, and policy. EPCs are located predominantly in academic research centers. Of the 123 EPC evidence reports listed on AHRQ’s website as of November 2004, 4 addressed M/SU health care: the diagnosis of ADHD, the treatment of ADHD, pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence, and new drug therapies for depression—all published in 1999 (AHRQ, undated).

Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

VHA performs systematic reviews of health care technologies through its national Technology Assessment Program (VATAP) and development of clinical practice guidelines. VATAP’s reviews of devices, drugs, procedures, and organizational and supportive systems used in health care have focused on outcome measurement in mental health services (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2004). Practice guidelines have addressed major depression, psychoses, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use.

Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Federal Collaboration on What Works

Like the efforts of NREPP, DOJ’s What Works initiative aims to develop and apply consistent federal standards to determine what constitutes evidence-based programs. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Education, SAMHSA, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Institute on Alcohol



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