Abuse and Alcoholism, as well as selected private organizations, DOJ in 2004 convened the Federal Collaboration on What Works, which spawned a working group whose early efforts focused on the development of a framework for assessing the evidence for program effectiveness. This Hierarchical Classification Framework for Program Effectiveness is intended to be applied initially to programs relevant to the mission of the Office of Justice Programs (i.e., primarily prevention, intervention, supervision, and treatment of drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, and adult crime), but the working group has identified it as potentially contributing to the development of a common standard of program effectiveness for use throughout the federal government (Department of Justice, 2005).

The Campbell Collaboration

Created in 2000 as a sibling of the Cochrane Collaboration, the Campbell Collaboration conducts systematic reviews of evidence in the fields of education, criminal justice, and social welfare. Its systematic reviews are carried out in accordance with explicit review protocols published in the Campbell Database of Systematic Reviews and are subject to comment and criticisms from users of that database. As of March 1, 2005, seven completed systemic reviews were listed on its website, along with an additional 35 registered titles or protocols for forthcoming reviews. Because the education, criminal justice, and social welfare systems play key roles in the funding and delivery of M/SU treatment services, there is some expected overlap between Cochrane and Campbell reviews, and seven completed Campbell reviews are also registered as Cochrane reviews. To address this overlap, the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations are pursuing coordination of their activities, including joint registration of methods groups, as well as links with other conveners and members of Cochrane and Campbell methods groups and with the steering group representatives of both organizations* (The Campbell Collaboration, undated).

State Governments

Some states conduct or sponsor their own evidence reviews. For example, in 1999 Hawaii created a panel to review the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments for a range of child and adolescent mental health conditions (Chorpita et al., 2002). Using methods and rating criteria adapted from those of the American



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