use health care from each other; (3) society’s reliance on the education, child welfare, and other non–health care sectors to secure M/SU services for many children and adults; and (4) the location of services needed by individuals with more-severe M/SU illnesses in public-sector programs apart from private-sector health care.

This mass of disconnected care delivery arrangements requires numerous patient interactions with different providers, organizations, and government agencies. It also requires multiple provider “handoffs” of patients for different services and transmittal of information to and joint planning by all these providers, organizations, and agencies if coordination is to occur. Overcoming these separations also is made difficult because of legal and organizational prohibitions on clinicians’ sharing information about mental and substance-use diagnoses, medications, and other features of clinical care, as well as a failure to implement effective structures and processes for linking the multiple clinicians and organizations caring for patients. To overcome these obstacles, the committee recommends that individual treatment providers create clinically effective linkages among mental, substance-use, and general health care and other human service agencies caring for these patients. Complementary actions are also needed from government agencies, purchasers, and accrediting bodies to promote the creation of these linkages.

To enable these actions, changes are needed as well to address the less-evolved infrastructure for using information technology, some unique features of the M/SU treatment workforce that also have implication for effective care coordination, and marketplace practices. Because these issues are of such consequence, they are addressed separately in Chapters 6, 7, and 8, respectively.


Crossing the Quality Chasm notes that the multiple clinicians and health care organizations serving patients in the American health care system typically fail to coordinate their care. That report further states that the resulting gaps in care, miscommunication, and redundancy are sources of significant patient suffering (IOM, 2001).1 The Quality Chasm’s health care quality framework addresses the need for better care coordination in


In a subsequent report, produced at the request of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Institute of Medicine identified “care coordination” as one of 20 priority health care areas deserving of immediate attention by all participants in American health care (IOM, 2003a).

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