References

Abercrombie, P.L. 2003. Physical Property Data Review of Selected Chemical Agents and Related Compounds, Updated Field Manual 3-9, ECBC-TR-294, September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Chemical Materials Agency.


Bechtel Parsons. 2003. Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Design Build Plan, Revision 2, September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004a. Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Initial Design (redacted), Rev. 0, July. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004b. Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Research, Development, and Demonstration Permit Application, March. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004c. Throughput and Availability Analysis: Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, July. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004d. BGCAPP TRRP Linear Projectile/Mortar Disassembly Study, Rev. 0, April. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004e. System Design Description (SDD) for Agent Collection and Neutralization, Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, Rev. A, July 26. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004f. System Design Description (SDD) for Munitions Washout System (MWS), Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, Rev. A, July 26. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004g. Energetics Batch Hydrolyzer (EBH) at Tooele Army Depot (TEAD) Interim Test Report, May 7. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004h. EBH HD (Energetics Batch Hydrolyzer Heated Discharge Conveyor) Mass and Energy Balance, July 9. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004i. TRRP Test Protocol for Study 5B-2A EBH Mockup Test, Rev. 0, June 15. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004j. TRRP Test Plan for Study 5b-2a Energetics Batch Hydrolyzer (EBH) Mockup Test, Rev. B, May 21. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

Bechtel Parsons. 2004k. System Design Description (SDD) for the Supercritical Water Oxidation System, Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, Rev. B, June 25. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.


Federal Register. 2000. Blue Grass Chemical Depot, KY; Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction Facility; Design, Construction, Operations, and Closure. Federal Register 65(233): 75677-75678.

Federal Register. 2003. Final Recommendations for Protecting Human Health from Potential Adverse Effects of Exposure to Agents GA (Tabun), GB (Sarin), and VX. Federal Register 68(180): 54460-54462.

Federal Register. 2004. Interim Recommendations for Airborne Exposure Limits for Chemical Warfare Agents H and HD (Sulfur Mustard). Federal Register 69(85): 24164-24168.


Gloyna, E.F., and L. Li. 1998. Supercritical water oxidation for wastewater and sludge remediation. P. 4780 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation. R.A. Myers, ed. New York, N.Y.: Wiley.


Hodes, M., P.A. Marrone, G.T. Hong, K.A. Smith, and J.W. Tester. 2004. Salt precipitation and scale control in supercritical water oxidation—Part A: fundamentals and research. Journal of Supercritical Fluids 29(3): 265-288.


Marrone, P.A., M. Hodes, K.A. Smith, and J.W. Tester. 2004. Salt precipitation and scale control in supercritical water oxidation—Part B: commercial/full-scale applications, Journal of Supercritical Fluids 29(3): 289-312.

Meyer, R., J. Köhler, and A. Homburg. 2002. Explosives, Fifth completely revised edition. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.


NiDI (Nickel Development Institute). 1999. Treating hazardous organic wastes. Available online at http://www.nickelinstitute.org/nickel/0899/6-0899n.shtml. Last accessed June 10, 2005.

NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.



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Interim Design Assessment for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant References Abercrombie, P.L. 2003. Physical Property Data Review of Selected Chemical Agents and Related Compounds, Updated Field Manual 3-9, ECBC-TR-294, September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Chemical Materials Agency. Bechtel Parsons. 2003. Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Design Build Plan, Revision 2, September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004a. Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Initial Design (redacted), Rev. 0, July. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004b. Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Research, Development, and Demonstration Permit Application, March. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004c. Throughput and Availability Analysis: Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, July. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004d. BGCAPP TRRP Linear Projectile/Mortar Disassembly Study, Rev. 0, April. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004e. System Design Description (SDD) for Agent Collection and Neutralization, Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, Rev. A, July 26. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004f. System Design Description (SDD) for Munitions Washout System (MWS), Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, Rev. A, July 26. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004g. Energetics Batch Hydrolyzer (EBH) at Tooele Army Depot (TEAD) Interim Test Report, May 7. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004h. EBH HD (Energetics Batch Hydrolyzer Heated Discharge Conveyor) Mass and Energy Balance, July 9. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004i. TRRP Test Protocol for Study 5B-2A EBH Mockup Test, Rev. 0, June 15. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004j. TRRP Test Plan for Study 5b-2a Energetics Batch Hydrolyzer (EBH) Mockup Test, Rev. B, May 21. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Bechtel Parsons. 2004k. System Design Description (SDD) for the Supercritical Water Oxidation System, Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, Rev. B, June 25. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Federal Register. 2000. Blue Grass Chemical Depot, KY; Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction Facility; Design, Construction, Operations, and Closure. Federal Register 65(233): 75677-75678. Federal Register. 2003. Final Recommendations for Protecting Human Health from Potential Adverse Effects of Exposure to Agents GA (Tabun), GB (Sarin), and VX. Federal Register 68(180): 54460-54462. Federal Register. 2004. Interim Recommendations for Airborne Exposure Limits for Chemical Warfare Agents H and HD (Sulfur Mustard). Federal Register 69(85): 24164-24168. Gloyna, E.F., and L. Li. 1998. Supercritical water oxidation for wastewater and sludge remediation. P. 4780 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation. R.A. Myers, ed. New York, N.Y.: Wiley. Hodes, M., P.A. Marrone, G.T. Hong, K.A. Smith, and J.W. Tester. 2004. Salt precipitation and scale control in supercritical water oxidation—Part A: fundamentals and research. Journal of Supercritical Fluids 29(3): 265-288. Marrone, P.A., M. Hodes, K.A. Smith, and J.W. Tester. 2004. Salt precipitation and scale control in supercritical water oxidation—Part B: commercial/full-scale applications, Journal of Supercritical Fluids 29(3): 289-312. Meyer, R., J. Köhler, and A. Homburg. 2002. Explosives, Fifth completely revised edition. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH. NiDI (Nickel Development Institute). 1999. Treating hazardous organic wastes. Available online at http://www.nickelinstitute.org/nickel/0899/6-0899n.shtml. Last accessed June 10, 2005. NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Interim Design Assessment for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant NRC. 1999. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000. Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons: A Supplemental Review. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001a. Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons: A Supplemental Review for Demonstration II. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001b. Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2002a. Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Blue Grass Army Depot. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2002b. Update on the Engineering Design Studies Evaluated in the NRC Report Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Blue Grass Army Depot: Letter Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2002c. Update on the Engineering Design Studies Evaluated in the NRC Report Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot: Letter Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Rosso, T.E., P.L. Abercrombie, A.B. Butrow, G. Hondrogiannis, J.M. Lochner, J.J. Loss, R.J. Malecki, J.M. Meuser, D.K. Rohrbaugh, Y.-C. Yang. 2005. Test Report: Characterization of Solid and Liquid GB Samples Collected from M55 Rockets Processed at Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (ANCDF), March 7. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Shaw, R.W., and N. Dahmen. 2000. Destruction of toxic organic materials using super-critical water oxidation: Current state of technology. Pp. 425-437 in Supercritical Fluids–Fundamentals and Applications. E. Kiran, P.G. Debenedetti, and C.J. Peters, eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Shaw, R.W., T.D. Brill, A.A. Clifford, C.A. Eckert, and E.U. Franck. 1991. Supercritical water: a medium for chemistry. Chemical & Engineering News 69(51): 26-39. Tester, J.W., H.R. Holgate, F.J. Armellini, P.A. Webley, W.R. Killilea, G.T. Hong, and H.E. Barner. 1993. Supercritical water oxidation technology: Process development and fundamental research. Pp. 35–76 in Emerging Technologies for Hazardous Waste Management III. ACS Symposium Series, Volume 518. W.D. Tedder and F.G. Pohland, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. U.S. Army. 1962. Military Specification MIL-B-46976, Bursters, Rocket, M34 and M36, October 11. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1965. Military Specification MIL-R-46972A, Rocket, Chemical Agent, 115 millimeter, January 13. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1966. Military Specification MIL-P-60071A(MU), Propellant Grain, M28, May 10. As amended by Amendment 1 of June 15, 1966. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 2002. Assessment of the Stability of M55 Rockets in Storage. Final, March. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 2004. Implementation Guidance Policy for Revised Airborne Exposures Limits for GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, H, HD, and HT, June 18. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army Installations and Environment. Yang, Y.-C. 1999. Chemical detoxification of nerve agent VX. Accounts of Chemical Research 32(2): 109-115. Yang, Y.-C., L.I. Szafraniec, W.T. Beaudry, and J.R. Ward. 1988. Kinetics and mechanism of the hydrolysis of 2-chloroethyl sulfides. Journal of Organic Chemistry 53(14): 3293-3297. Yang, Y.-C., J.A. Baker, and J.R. Ward. 1992. Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Chemical Reviews 92(8): 1729-1743.

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Interim Design Assessment for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Appendixes

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