Index

A

AARP. See American Association of Retired Persons

Ability to change, without any form of professional assistance, 37

Abortion, 220

Accommodation, 187

Action

attitudes guiding, 46

consequences of, 137

likelihood of taking, 134n

Activity restriction, 26

Adaptation, 24

Addictive behaviors, 42, 153

Adult developmental psychology, recent developments in, 12

Adulthood, 20

Advance directives, 34

Affect, role in self-regulation, 43

Affective disorders, major, 23

Affective forecasting, 62–63

Affective heuristics, 3

Affective neural systems, 60–61

Age, protective factor in etiology of mental health disorders, 29

Age differences in self-regulation, 38–39

Age discrimination, consequences of, 87

Age distribution by population, 10–11

Age identity and self-concept, 86–87

Age-related decline, beliefs about, 80

Age stigma from the perceiver’s perspective, 175–186

attitudes and stereotypes, 175–180

behavior toward older adults, 180–184

emerging themes and directions for future research, 184–186

Age stigma from the perspective of older adults, 186–197

consequences of exposure to ageist stereotypes, 190–191

coping with a negative age identity, 191–196

emerging themes and directions for future research, 196–197

identity and self-concept, 186–188

implications of self-stereotyping, 189

Ageism, 4

consequences of, 197

coping in the face of, 198

multiple dynamics of, 198

Ageist views, of patients in a medical setting, 82

Aging

influences on course of, 24

and prefrontal decline, 151–152

uneasiness about, 9



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When I’m 64 Index A AARP. See American Association of Retired Persons Ability to change, without any form of professional assistance, 37 Abortion, 220 Accommodation, 187 Action attitudes guiding, 46 consequences of, 137 likelihood of taking, 134n Activity restriction, 26 Adaptation, 24 Addictive behaviors, 42, 153 Adult developmental psychology, recent developments in, 12 Adulthood, 20 Advance directives, 34 Affect, role in self-regulation, 43 Affective disorders, major, 23 Affective forecasting, 62–63 Affective heuristics, 3 Affective neural systems, 60–61 Age, protective factor in etiology of mental health disorders, 29 Age differences in self-regulation, 38–39 Age discrimination, consequences of, 87 Age distribution by population, 10–11 Age identity and self-concept, 86–87 Age-related decline, beliefs about, 80 Age stigma from the perceiver’s perspective, 175–186 attitudes and stereotypes, 175–180 behavior toward older adults, 180–184 emerging themes and directions for future research, 184–186 Age stigma from the perspective of older adults, 186–197 consequences of exposure to ageist stereotypes, 190–191 coping with a negative age identity, 191–196 emerging themes and directions for future research, 196–197 identity and self-concept, 186–188 implications of self-stereotyping, 189 Ageism, 4 consequences of, 197 coping in the face of, 198 multiple dynamics of, 198 Ageist views, of patients in a medical setting, 82 Aging influences on course of, 24 and prefrontal decline, 151–152 uneasiness about, 9

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When I’m 64 Aging and social engagement, 69–72 mental stimulation and cognitive aging, 71–72 neurocognitive function and cognition, 70–71 Aging societies, future of, 13 Agreeableness, 22 Alcoholism, 37, 42, 58 Alzheimer’s disease, 68, 75, 77 America the “aging of,” 1 well-being of, 250 American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), 163–164 American Psychological Association, 249 Amygdala, 70, 148 Anger, and risk aversion, 152 Anti-Semitism, 235 Antonucci, Toni, 25 Art of Asking Questions, The, 233 Attenuation, of question order effects, 220–221 Attitude change processes, thoughtful or automatic, 47–49 Attitude reports, 220–225 negative, 24 question order effects decreasing with aging, 220–221 response order effects increasing with age, 221–225 strong and positive, 24 Attitudes, 175–180 automatic, 52 guiding people’s decisions and actions, 46 implicit or unconscious, 179–180 toward different older adult subtypes, 176 toward the future, 60 Attitudes toward body image, racial and ethnic differences in, 32 Authoritarian Personality, The, 235 Automatic attitudes, 52 Automatic biases, challenging, 90 Automatic evaluations, 85 B Bandura, Albert, 23 Beatles, 9 Behavior. See also Addictive behaviors genetic explanations for, 21 importance of context in maintaining, 41 key to all aging scenarios, 13 neuroscience studying its relation to the brain, 37 prediction of, 210 Behavior-based research, 3 Behavior change, sustaining, 134–138 Behavior toward older adults, 180–184 interventions, 183–184 patronizing versus accommodating speech, 181–183 Behavioral and Social Research Program, 2, 11, 16, 247 Behavioral forecasting measures, 62 Behavioral frequency reports, 225–227 response alternatives, 226–227 subjective theories, 225–226 Behavioral observations, 83–84 Behavioral practices, 5 Behavioral science, recent developments in, 12 Beliefs, 21 about age-related decline, 80 about aging, 89 about memory loss, 30 acquired, 23 self-efficacy, 44 Binge eating, 42 Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals, 240 Body image, racial and ethnic differences in attitudes toward, 32 BOLD. See Blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals Boomer generation, 9 Brain imaging methods, 241 C Cantril, Hadley, 233 Capabilities for deciding, 56–59 individual, 56–58 meta-awareness, 58–59 Caregiving, 12, 26 Cellular senescence, 21 Center for Scientific Review, 249

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When I’m 64 Change. See also Ability to change; Life change external sources of, 36 initiating and maintaining, 39–41, 50–51 involving novelty, 41 measurement of over time, 17 need for, 34 older people’s unique motives for, 35 readiness to make, 122–139 Changing implicit and explicit attitudes, 51–52 Choices intertemporal, 60 made earlier in life, consequences of, 55 “tyranny” of, 54 Cognitive deficits, age-related, 82 Cognitive function documented declines in, 88 engagement as augmenting, 77 preserving good, 68 Cognitive impairments, 138 Cognitive neuroscience, 39 of aging, 146 Cognitive science, recent developments in, 12 Cognitive tests, 73 Cognitive training, 71 Cognitive value, fostering, 71 Collaboration between theory and practice, enhancing, 138–139 Committee on Aging Frontiers in Social Psychology, Personality, and Adult Developmental Psychology, 2, 13–14, 58 charge and approach, 11–13 Communication, patronizing forms of, 82 Communication strategies that motivate behavior change, 125–134 message framing, 130–134 message tailoring, 127–130 Competence stereotypes, 177–178 forgetfulness, 177–178 mental incompetence, 178 Compliance, with medical regimens, 47 Confidence, 161, 164, 188 Conscientiousness, 23 Consequences of actions, 137 of age discrimination, 87 of ageism, 197 of choices made earlier in life, 55 considering, 49 of exposure to ageist stereotypes, 190–191 introduction of new, 49 Context effects, age-sensitive, 219, 228 Continuum-based framework, 124 Control, over the environment, 44 Coping, 43 with distress, 23 in the face of ageism, 198 with traumatic events, 28 Coping with a negative age identity, 191–196 primary compensatory strategies, 192–194 secondary compensatory strategies, 194–196 Cortical “disconnection,” 243 Cross-disciplinary research, 37 Cross-racial studies, 78 Cross-sectional studies, 12, 24–25 Cultural and ethnic factors, role of, 78–79 Cultural effects, 1, 5, 15, 21 recommendation regarding, 15 D Deciding whether to decide, 155–158 Decision avoidance, 156–157 Decision-making processes emotion, and older adults’ decisions, 58 long-range planning and, 59–61 meta-awareness of one’s own, 59 at older ages, 3 Decisions attitudes guiding, 46 medical, 155 memories of past, 147 types most often regretted, 65 “Delay discounting,” 154 Deliberative forms of thinking, 48 Deliberative neural systems, 60–61 Deliberative processes, 3, 52 Dementia, 12 defining, 70–71 delaying the onset of, 79 educational level and, 31 physiology of, 242–243 Depressed performance, 88

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When I’m 64 Depression and cognitive and neural function, 74 predicting, 189 Detection behaviors, 131 Developmental diathesis-stress model, 21 Diets, 21, 35, 129 failing at, 42 nutritious, 13 Differences in people’s readiness to change, 122–139 Disambiguation, of stereotypes, 183, 186 Discrimination age, consequences of, 87 stress from being the target of, 87 Disease onset, engagement as delaying, 77 Disidentification, 194–195 Disinhibition, 42 Dissatisfaction, post-change, 51 Distress coping, 23 emotional, 52 Diversity, developing a psychology of, 4–5, 15–16 Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, 149–151 Driving ability, 58 link to independence, 59 Drug cards, increasingly complicated, 55 Drug regimens. See Medical regimens E Economy, of an aging workforce, 11 Educational level, and dementia, 31 Elderspeak, 182–183 Eliot, Andrew, 129 Emotion attention to, 57 in the decision process, 58 effectiveness of regulation of, 146 intraindividual variability in the experience of, 213 and older adults’ decisions, 147–149 regulation of, 156 Emotional distress, 52 Emotional factors in attitudes and decision making, 49–50 Emotional processes and self-regulation, 42–43. See also Self-regulation Emotional responses, to options, 66 Emotional solidarity, between parents and adult children, 25 Emotional well-being, 27–29 End-of-life care, 65–66 Engagement as augmenting cognitive function or delaying disease onset, 77 most effective types of, 77 Environments control over, 44 exposure to different types of, 23 mastery of, 28 natural, change in, 37 stable cues in, 41 Escapist strategies, 42 Ethnicity issues, 1, 5, 15, 21 recommendation regarding, 15 Exercising regularly, 13, 21, 35, 73–74, 121 Expectations acquired, 23 of aging, 81 becoming self-fulfilling prophecies, 181 studying, 51 Experience increasing complexity of, 214 learning from, 63 openness to, 22 Experience sampling, 212–214 Explicit stereotypes, 81–83 Extraversion, 23 F Family receiving care from, 32 relationships of self to, 61 Fascism, 235 Fear, and risk aversion, 152 “Feared” selves, 188 Feature-based strategies, 159–160 Five-factor model of traits, 22 Flexibility. See also Neural plasticity fMRI. See Functional magnetic resonance imaging Forgetfulness, 177–178 Formal treatment, ability to change without any form of, 37 Free to Choose, 54 Friedman, Milton, 54 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 58, 214–215, 240, 242, 245 Funding mechanisms, 6 Future, attitudes toward, 60

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When I’m 64 Future feelings, ability to predict, 62 Future research needed, 13–15 emerging themes and directions for, 184–186, 196–197 G Gage, Phineas, 149, 151 Gain-framed appeals, 130–131, 133 Gambling games, 153–154 studies using, 150 Gender, race, and socioeconomic status, 31–33 Gender differences, 5, 15, 21, 180 recommendation regarding, 15 Genetic explanations, for behavior, 21 Gerontology, 12, 198 Glucocorticoid dysregulation, 74 Grants R24 infrastructure, 17 for transdisciplinary centers, 17, 248 Great Depression, “birth dearth” during, 9 Growth, personal, 24, 28 H Handbook of Questionnaire Design, The, 233 Health, subjective perceptions of, 38 Health interventions, costly and degrading, 66 “Healthy mind,” maintaining, 4 Healthy People 2010, 90, 134 Healthy regimens, in everyday life, 13 Heterogeneity, of America’s older population, 15 Heuristics. See Affective heuristics High-risk situations, 44 Hippocampal structures loss of neurons in, 74 neurogenesis in, 73 “Hoped-for” selves, 188 5-HTT (serotonin transporter) gene, 21 Human genome project, 21 Hypertension, 151 I IAT. See Implicit Association Test Identity, and self-concept, 186–188 Illness, recovery from, 23 Implicit Association Test (IAT), 52, 84, 179, 211 Implicit attitudes and stereotypes, 179–180 activation of, 83–85 gender differences in, 180 Implicit constructs and processes, 83 Impression management, 193 Impulsivity, 154 Incidental encoding, 244–245 Incontinence, 193 Individual adjustments, 24 Individual beliefs and attitudes, 43–44 Individual differences, 23 role of, 78 Individuals, 56–58 Inertia, overcoming, 35 Information about health more effective presentation of, 36, 126 reduced seeking of, 158–159 Initiation and maintenance of change, 39–41, 50–51, 121–144 Interactional perspective, on personality, 23 Interdisciplinary research, 5–6, 14, 16, 198, 248 Intergenerational interactions, 181 dynamics of, 184 Internalized stereotypes, effects of, 88–89 Intertemporal choice, normative models of, 60 Interventions, 183–184. See also Health interventions to change ageist attitudes, 89–90 culturally appropriate, programmatic, 79 strategies for, 138–139 Intraindividual variability, in emotional experience, 213 Intuitive modes of thinking, 48 Isolation, 12 J Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 214 K K awards, 247–248 flexibility in, 248 Kahn, Robert, 25

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When I’m 64 L Late-life outcomes, 1 Learning from experience, 63 Leisure activities, mentally engaging, 68–69 Life change, successful, 44 Life experiences, accumulating, 24, 33 Life-prolonging medical care, 32 Life-span approach, 12, 14, 19–21, 24, 63 Likert, Rensis, 235 Long-term care institutions, 73 Long-term relationships, loss of, 26–27 Longer life expectancies, impact on societies, 1 Loss-framed appeals, 130–131, 133 M Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 240, 244 Magnetoencephalogram (MEG), 214 Major theory building, 13 Marijuana use, 58 Marital satisfaction, 26 “Matthew effect,” 20 Measurement of implicit constructs, 210–212 introduction, 219 Measurement of psychological mechanisms, 15, 17, 58, 209–216 experience sampling, 212–214 measuring implicit constructs, 210–212 social neuroscience, 214–216 Medical care, life-prolonging, 32 Medical decisions, 155 Medical regimens, compliance with, 47, 59, 121 Medical setting, ageist views of patients in, 82 Medicare, increasingly complicated, 55 Medications, adherence in taking, 35, 37, 40 Memories, of past decisions, 147 Memory bias, 165–166 Memory enhancement effect, and self-reference, 215 Memory loss beliefs about, 30 meta-awareness of, 59, 244 Mental capabilities, significant declines in, 56 Mental health issues, 20, 29 Mental incompetence, 178 Mental stimulation, and cognitive aging, 71–72 Mental vitality, ability to maintain, 68 Message framing, 130–134 Message tailoring, 40, 48–49, 126–130 defined, 127n Meta-awareness, 58–59 Methodology, issues of, 17 Mischel, Walter, 60 Models, of behavior change, 128 Mortality, 121 predictors of, 38 Motivation, and health, 44 Motivation and behavioral change, 2–3, 34–53 developing methods for, 139 persuasion and attitude change, 45–52 recommendation regarding, 14 Motivation and self-regulation, 36–45 age differences in self-regulation, 38–39 the avoidance of novelty, 41–42 emotional processes and self-regulation, 42–43 individual beliefs and attitudes, 43–44 initiating or maintaining change, 39–41 social facilitation and barriers to change, 44–45 MRI. See Magnetic resonance imaging Multilevel factors, 5, 14, 16 Multiparty decision making, 61–66 affective forecasting, 62–63 regrets, 64–65 risk aversion, 63–64 Multiple categories of identity, 85–86 N National Health Interview Survey, 29 National Institute of Mental Health, StartMH Program, 249 National Institute on Aging (NIA), 2, 5, 13–17, 247–248 Behavioral and Social Research Program, 2, 11, 16, 247 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 17, 248–249 Center for Scientific Review, 249 Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, 248

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When I’m 64 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 248 National Research Council, 2 National Science Foundation, 249 Natural environments, change in, 37 Negative affect, 152 Negative emotional experiences, 128, 147, 160 Negative pictures, memory for, 148 Negative stereotypes, 176 Neural plasticity, role in social tasks, 216 Neural substrates of decision making, 149–151 Neural systems, types of, 60 Neurocognitive function and cognition, 70–71 Neurogenesis, 73 Neuroimaging, 152, 243 Neuron loss, 151 Neuroscience cognitive, 39 methods of, 58 recent gains in, 37, 39 Neuroticism, 23 New consequences, introduction of, 49 NIA. See National Institute on Aging NIH. See National Institutes of Health Nondifferentiation, 236 Novelty, the avoidance of, 41–42 O Obesity, effectiveness of programs to reduce, 32 Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, 248 Older adult subtypes, attitudes toward different, 176 Older adults affective heuristics for, 3 behavior toward, 180–184 coping with traumatic events, 28 defined, 11n, 185–187, 189 differential treatment of, 4 emotional self-control in, 28 growing diversity of, 15 growth in, 20 identifying problems of, 12 impulse control in, 38–39 and the Internet, 76 predicting lower satisfaction in the future, 27 reported distance between actual and ideal selves, 24 self-satisfaction among, 43 societies top-heavy with, 9 solving interpersonal problems, 29 spending more time alone, 25 Older adults’ decisions, prefrontal cortex and, 149–164 Optimism-pessimism, dimension of, 23 Optimizing questionnaire design, 233–237 nondifferentiation, 236 number of scale points, 234 order effects, 237 scale point labeling, 234–236 Orbitofrontal cortex, 149–150 Order effects, 237 Overconfidence, 161 P Paradox of Choice, The, 54 Park, Denise C., 254 Passivity, 40 Patronizing forms of communication, 82 versus accommodating speech, 181–183 Payne, Stanley, 233 Performance deficits, age-related, 88 Personal growth, 24, 28 Personality, and self-concept, 22–24 Personality studies, 213 interactional or transactional perspective on, 23 recent developments in, 12 stability and, 22 Perspectives, changing, 24 Persuasion and attitude change, 45–52 attitude change processes, thoughtful or automatic, 47–49 changing implicit and explicit attitudes, 51–52 emotional factors in attitudes and decision making, 49–50 initiation and maintenance of change, 50–51 knowledge about, 53 PET. See Positron emission tomography Philadelphia Geriatric Center Positive and Negative Affect Scales, 231 Physical activity. See Exercising regularly Plasticity. See Neural plasticity Positive affect, 149

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When I’m 64 Positive emotional experiences, 128 Positive social identity, maintaining, 194 Positive stereotypes, 82, 184–185 Positivity effect, 30–31 Positron emission tomography (PET), 214, 240, 245 Prediction, 210 of depression, 189 of future feelings, 62 of mortality, 38 of self-esteem, 189 Prefrontal cortex and older adults’ decisions, 149–165 aging and prefrontal decline, 151–152 deciding whether to decide, 155–158 neural substrates of decision making, 149–151 repeated decisions, 161–162 risky decisions, 152–155 seeking information, 158–161 susceptibility to scams, 162–164 Prejudice negotiating, 197 reducing, 183 Prevention behaviors, 131 Primacy effects, 222–223 Primary compensatory strategies, 192–194 self-presentation theory, 192–193 socioemotional selectivity theory, 193–194 Priming measure, 52, 84, 211 Problem-solving, 156–157 social, 57 Procrastination, 34–35 Professional assistance, ability to change without any form of, 37 Prospect theory, framing postulate of, 130 Psychological applications of neuroimaging, 241 Psychological disengagement, 194 Psychological processes, 5 Psychological transformation of events, 63 Psychology of diversity, developing, 4–5, 15–16 role in understanding motivation for change, 35 Psychology and Aging, 231, 234 Psychopathologies, 23 age not increasing risk of, 29 Psychotherapy, efficacy of, 41 Purpose in life, 28 Q Question order effects, decreasing with aging, 220–221 Question wording, format, and order, 228 R R24 infrastructure grants, 17 Race effects, 1, 5, 15, 21 on health, 31 recommendation regarding, 15 “Rational” processes, 66 Readiness to make change, 122 Reasoned action, theory of, 123 Recency effects, 223 Recommendations, 2, 5–6, 14, 16 Recovery from illness, 23 Regret, 64–66 anticipated, 64 Relationships. See also Social networks positive, 28 of self to the family, 61 Repeated decisions, 161–162 Report structure, 18 Research infrastructure, 5–6, 247–250 developing, 6 supporting, 16–17 Research topics, 3–4 motivation and behavioral change, 3 opportunities lost: stereotypes of self and by others, 4 social engagement and cognition, 4 socioemotional influences on decision making, 3–4 Resilience, 24 Response alternatives, 226–227 Response order effects, increasing with age, 221–225 Retirement “decisions,” 21 Retirement Research Foundation, 249 Retirement savings, 55–56 Review process, innovative use of, 6 Reward anticipation, 215 Risk aversion, 63–64, 66, 152 Risk tolerance, 152 Risky decisions, 152–155. See also Highrisk situations Russell Sage Foundation, 249

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When I’m 64 S Satisfaction, 136–137. See also Dissatisfaction; Self-satisfaction marital, 26 studying, 51 Scale points labeling, 234–236 number of, 234 Scams, susceptibility to, 162–164 Schwartz, Barry, 54 Screening behaviors, 132 Secondary compensatory strategies, 194–196 disidentification, 194–195 psychological disengagement, 194 social comparison, 195–196 Seeking information, 158–161 reduced, 158–159 Selection, 20 Self, views of, 24 Self-acceptance, 28 Self-concept, 198 changing with age, 24 Self-confidence, 145–146 Self-control, maintaining, 66–67 Self-efficacy, 128 beliefs about, 44 Self-esteem not changing with age, 24 predicting, 189 Self-fulfilling prophecies, expectations becoming, 181 Self-knowledge, 20 Self-persuasion, 128 Self-presentation theory, 192–193 Self-questioning, 47 Self-regulation, 35 and aging, 39, 50 role of affect in, 43 skills in, 20, 214 strategies for, 137 Self-Regulatory Model of Illness Behavior, 135 Self-report scales, 62 Self-reports, 84, 209 of constructs or processes, 83 Self-satisfaction, among older adults, 43 Self-stereotypes, 198 implications of, 189 Senescence, cellular, 21 Senior citizen community settings, 73 Shifting standards framework, 86 Smoking, 13, 42, 127 Social class effects, 15 Social cognition, 29–31, 214 Social cognitive approach, 85 Social cognitive theory, 135 Social comparison, 195–196 Social concepts, 21 “Social convoys,” 25 Social downgrading, 195 Social engagement, 72–76 technology training as engagement, 75–76 underlying mechanisms, 73–75 Social facilitation, and barriers to change, 44–45 Social identity, maintaining a positive, 194 Social networks, 1 composition of, 25 over time, 25 size of, 27 strong and lasting, 13 Social neurosciences, 214–216 recent developments in, 12 transforming our understanding of behavior, 14 Social pressure, 162 Social problem solving, 57 Social psychology, 32, 81, 83, 86–87, 89 recent developments in, 12 Social relations, 20, 25–27 Social Security system, 56 proposed changes in, 55 Social support, 44–45 Social tasks, role of neural plasticity in, 216 Sociocultural perspective, 83 Socioeconomic status, 21, 31 recommendation regarding, 15 Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), 42, 128, 148, 193–194 Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, 232 SST. See Socioemotional selectivity theory Stable environmental cues, 41 Stable personality traits, 23 Stage-based framework, 124 StartMH Program, 249 Status quo, acceptance of, 34 “Stereotype threat” theory, 88, 190 Stereotypes, 175–180. See also Self-stereotypes activation of, 83

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When I’m 64 age identity and self-concept, 86–87 competence, 177–178 disambiguation of, 183, 186 effects of internalized, 88–89 explicit, 81–83 impact on self and others, 2, 4, 16, 30, 80–91 implicit or unconscious, 179–180 interventions to change ageist attitudes, 89–90 multiple categories of identity, 85–86 negative, 81–83 positive, 82, 184–185 recommendation regarding, 14 Stigma-related stress, 191 Stimulation, most effective types and combinations of, 79 Strains of later life, 26 Stress from being the target of discrimination, 87 and cognitive and neural function, 74 stigma-related, 191 Stressful life events, 21, 23 Subjective perceptions of health, 38 Subjective theories, 225–226 Subjective well-being, 23 Sustaining behavior change, 134–138 T Tailoring. See Message tailoring Taxonomies of traits, 22 Technology training in as engagement, 75–76 using to tailor messages, 128 Telomere shortening, 21 Temperamental inheritance, 23 Thematic apperception tests, 83 Thinking continuum, 47–48 Thoughts about thoughts, 47 Trade-offs, 160 Training designs, 72 Transactional perspective, on personality, 23 Transdisciplinary centers, grants for, 17, 248 Transformation of events psychologically, 63 Traumatic events, coping with, 28 Treatment, ability to change without any formal, 37 “Tyranny of choice,” 54 U Unconscious attitudes and stereotypes, 179–180 gender differences in, 180 Underconfidence, 161 Underlying mechanisms of behavior, 73–75 investigating, 3 Understanding. See Meta-awareness University of California-San Diego, 249 “Use it or lose it” argument, 74 V Vacations, retrieving memories about, 61 Validity checking, 47 W Well-being conceptualizing, 28 emotional, 27–29 of the nation, 250 subjective, 23 Widowhood, 26–27 Wisdom, 24 Workshops, extended, 6