When I’m 64

Committee on Aging Frontiers in Social Psychology, Personality, and Adult Developmental Psychology

Laura L. Carstensen and Christine R. Hartel, Editors

Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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When I’m 64 When I’m 64 Committee on Aging Frontiers in Social Psychology, Personality, and Adult Developmental Psychology Laura L. Carstensen and Christine R. Hartel, Editors Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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When I’m 64 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. N01-0D-4-2139 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data When I’m 64 / Laura L. Carstensen and Christine R. Hartel, editors.—1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-10064-X (pbk. book)—ISBN 0-309-65508-0 (pdfs) 1. Aging—Psychological aspects. 2. Aging—Social aspects. 3. Older people—United States. I. Title: When I am sixty-four. II. Carstensen, Laura L. III. Hartel, Christine R., 1947- BF724.55.A35W54 2006 155.67—dc22 2005033689 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2006). When I’m 64. Committee on Aging Frontiers in Social Psychology, Personality, and Adult Developmental Psychology. Laura L. Carstensen and Christine R. Hartel, Editors. Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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When I’m 64 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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When I’m 64 COMMITTEE ON AGING FRONTIERS IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, PERSONALITY, AND ADULT DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY LAURA L. CARSTENSEN (Chair), Department of Psychology, Stanford University FREDDA BLANCHARD-FIELDS, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology MARGARET GATZ, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California TODD F. HEATHERTON, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College GEORGE LOEWENSTEIN, Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University DENISE C. PARK, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign LAWRENCE A. PERVIN, Department of Psychology (emeritus), Rutgers University RICHARD E. PETTY, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University ILENE C. SIEGLER, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center LINDA J. WAITE, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago KEITH E. WHITFIELD, Department of Behavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University CHRISTINE R. HARTEL, Study Director TRACY G. MYERS, Study Director (until March 2004) JESSICA G. MARTINEZ, Senior Program Assistant

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When I’m 64 BOARD ON BEHAVIORAL, COGNITIVE, AND SENSORY SCIENCES ANNE C. PETERSEN (Chair), W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, MI LINDA MARIE BURTON, Center for Human Development and Family Research, Pennsylvania State University STEPHEN J. CECI, Department of Human Development, Cornell University EUGENE K. EMORY, Department of Psychology, Emory University ROCHEL GELMAN, Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University ANTHONY W. JACKSON, The Asia Society, Los Angeles, CA PETER LENNIE, Center for Neural Science, New York University MARCIA C. LINN, Graduate School of Education, University of California at Berkeley ELISSA L. NEWPORT, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester CHARLES R. PLOTT, Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology MICHAEL L. RUTTER, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London ARNOLD SAMEROFF, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan JAMES W. STIGLER, Department of Psychology, University of California at Los Angeles JOHN A. SWETS, BBN Technologies, Cambridge, MA RICHARD F. THOMPSON, Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California WILLIAM A. YOST, Office of Research and the Graduate School, Loyola University Chicago CHRISTINE R. HARTEL, Board Director

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When I’m 64 Contents Preface   ix Executive Summary   1 PART ONE: COMMITTEE REPORT     1   Overview   9 2   The Social Side of Human Aging   19 3   Motivation and Behavioral Change   34 4   Socioemotional Influences on Decision Making: The Challenge of Choice   54 5   Social Engagement and Cognition   68 6   Opportunities Lost: The Impact of Stereotypes on Self and Others   80     References   92 PART TWO: BACKGROUND PAPERS         Initiatives to Motivate Change: A Review of Theory and Practice and Their Implications for Older Adults Alexander J. Rothman   121     A Review of Decision-Making Processes: Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Aging Mara Mather   145

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When I’m 64     A Social Psychological Perspective on the Stigmatization of Older Adults Jennifer A. Richeson and J. Nicole Shelton   174     Measuring Psychological Mechanisms Committee on Aging Frontiers in Social Psychology, Personality, and Adult Developmental Psychology   209     Measurement: Aging and the Psychology of Self-Report Norbert Schwarz   219     Optimizing Brief Assessments in Research on the Psychology of Aging: A Pragmatic Approach to Self-Report Measurement Jon A. Krosnick, Allyson L. Holbrook, and Penny S. Visser   231     Utility of Brain Imaging Methods in Research on Aging Christine R. Hartel and Randy L. Buckner   240     Research Infrastructure Committee on Aging Frontiers in Social Psychology, Personality, and Adult Developmental Psychology   247 APPENDIX: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Contributors   251 INDEX   259

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When I’m 64 Preface Late in 2002 staff of the Behavioral and Social Research Program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) asked the National Research Council (NRC) to explore research opportunities in social psychology, personality, and adult developmental psychology in order to assist the NIA in developing a long-term research agenda in these areas. The NRC, through the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences, created the Committee on Aging Frontiers in Social Psychology, Personality, and Adult Developmental Psychology, which I had the honor of chairing, to undertake this task. Committee members included clinical, personality, social, and life-span developmental psychologists, as well as a sociologist and an economist. Some committee members hold primary expertise in aging; others represent different but related fields. As we educated each other about the broad range of work relevant to our charge it became clear that this was an ideal mix. The committee held four meetings, at which it identified a variety of possible research opportunities and considered the promise of each. As the committee considered priorities, it invited the input of a number of other specialists in vital research areas at a committee-sponsored workshop in September 2003. This made possible an even deeper discussion of the more promising areas of opportunity. Through such consultation and private deliberation, the committee arrived at consensus in giving its recommendations to the NIA. The committee believes it has identified key areas of

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When I’m 64 research in which additional investment may lead to an entirely new understanding about the health and well-being of older people. On behalf of the committee, I would like to acknowledge the contributions of a number of people who helped us to complete our work. First, we are grateful to Richard Suzman, the sponsor of the project and associate director of the NIA. He posed provocative ideas and questions to the committee and stimulated much thoughtful discussion. We owe special thanks to several experts from outside the committee whose input was very valuable. Prominent among these are the authors of the six papers prepared for the committee: Mara Mather, University of California at Santa Cruz; Jennifer Richeson, Northwestern University; Nicole Shelton, Princeton University; Norbert Schwarz, University of Michigan; Alexander Rothman, University of Minnesota; Randy Buckner, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Washington University in St. Louis; Jon Krosnick, Stanford University; Allyson Holbrook, University of Illinois, Chicago; and Penny Visser, University of Chicago. We also benefited considerably from the presentations and comments at our workshop of Roger Dixon, University of Alberta; John Darley, Princeton University; Annamaria Lusardi, Dartmouth College; Marc Freedman, Civic Ventures; Claude Steele, Stanford University; Charles Carver, University of Miami; Robert Wallace, University of Iowa; William Greenough, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Dov J. Cohen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Michael Feuerstein, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Marjorie Bowman, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; and Lisa Berkman, Harvard University, all of whom contributed to the committee’s thinking in important ways. At the NRC, Christine R. Hartel and Tracy G. Myers served as the study directors for this project. Special thanks are due to Eugenia Grohman, who provided timely counsel and support as well as editing our manuscript with skill and insight; to Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, who managed the review process; to Amy Love Collins and Susan R. McCutchen, who assisted with research for the report; and to Jessica Gonzalez Martinez, our skilled and dedicated project assistant, who was both efficient and considerate. I would also like to recognize the committee members for their unusually generous contributions of time and expertise and for their professionalism in completing this work. They receive only the compensation of knowing that they have done their best to provide recommendations to the NIA that could advance the field in important ways. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as pos-

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When I’m 64 sible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Marilyn S. Albert, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University; Toni Antonucci, Institute for Social Research Life Course Development Program, University of Michigan; Karlene Ball, Center for Research on Applied Gerontology, University of Alabama at Birmingham; John T. Cacioppo, Department of Psychology, University of Chicago; Medellena (Maria) Glymour, Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health; Brenda Major, Department of Psychology, University of California at Santa Barbara; Matthew McGue, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota; and Phyllis Moen, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lisa Berkman, Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health. Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for making sure that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all reviewers’ comments were considered carefully. Responsibility for the final content of this report, however, rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Laura L. Carstensen, Chair Committee on Aging Frontiers in Social Psychology, Personality, and Adult Developmental Psychology

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