such abstractions may well provide an alternative and more appropriate language and set of abstractions for representing biological interactions, describing biological phenomena, or conceptualizing some characteristics of biological systems.

  1. Cyberinfrastructure and data acquisition are enabling support technologies for 21st century biology. Cyberinfrastructure—high-end general-purpose computing centers that provide supercomputing capabilities to the community at large; well-curated data repositories that store and make available to all researchers large volumes and many types of biological data; digital libraries that contain the intellectual legacy of biological researchers and provide mechanisms for sharing, annotating, reviewing, and disseminating knowledge in a collaborative context; and high-speed networks that connect geographically distributed computing resources—will become an enabling mechanism for large-scale, data-intensive biological research that is distributed over multiple laboratories and investigators around the world. New data acquisition technologies such as genome sequencers will enable researchers to obtain larger amounts of data of different types and at different scales, and advances in information technology and computing will play key roles in the development of these technologies.

Why is computing in all of these roles needed for 21st century biology? The answer, in a word, is data. The data relevant to 21st century biology are highly heterogeneous in content and format, multimodal in method of collection, multidimensional in time and space, multidisciplinary in creation and analysis, multiscale in organization, international in relevance, and the product of collaborations and sharing. Consider, for example, that biological data may consist of sequences, graphs, geometric information, scalar and vector fields, patterns of organization, constraints, images, scientific prose, and even biological hypotheses and evidence. These data may well be of very high dimension, since data points that might be associated with the behavior of an individual unit must be collected for thousands or tens of thousands of comparable units.

These data are windows into structures of immense complexity. Biological entities (and systems consisting of multiple entities) are sufficiently complex that it may well be impossible for any human being to keep all of the essential elements in his or her head at once; if so, it is likely that computers will be the vessel in which biological theories are held, formed, and evaluated. Furthermore, because of evolution and a long history of environmental accidents that have driven processes of natural selection, biological systems are more properly regarded as engineered entities than as objects whose existence might be predicted on the basis of the first principles of physics, although the evolutionary context means that an artifact is never “finished” and rather has to be evaluated on a continuous basis. The task of understanding thus becomes one of “reverse engineering”—attempting to understand the construction of a device about whose design little is known but from which much indicative empirical data can be extracted.

Twenty-first century biology will be an information science, and it will use computing and information technology as a language and a medium in which to manage the discrete, nonsymmetric, largely nonreducible, unique nature of biological systems and observations. In some ways, computing and information will have a relationship to the language of 21st century biology that is similar to the relationship of calculus to the language of the physical sciences. Computing itself can provide biologists with an alternative, and possibly more appropriate, language and sets of intellectual abstractions for creating models and data representations of higher-order interactions, describing biological phenomena, and conceptualizing some characteristics of biological systems.


From the computing side (i.e., for the computer scientist), there is an as-yet-unfulfilled promise that biology may have significant potential to influence computer design, component fabrication, and software. The essential premise is that biological systems possess many qualities that would be desirable in

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