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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions Committee on Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract NASW-01001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10075-5 Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions Other Reports of the Space Studies Board The Astrophysical Context of Life (SSB with the Board on Life Sciences, 2005) Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars (2005) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (SSB with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2005) Review of Goals and Plans for NASA’s Space and Earth Sciences (2005) Science in NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration (2005) Solar and Space Physics and Its Role in Space Exploration (2005) Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope: Final Report (SSB with ASEB, 2004) Exploration of the Outer Heliosphere and the Local Interstellar Medium: A Workshop Report (2004) Issues and Opportunities Regarding the U.S. Space Program: A Summary Report of a Workshop on National Space Policy (SSB with ASEB, 2004) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Review of Science Requirements for the Terrestrial Planet Finder: Letter Report (2004) Understanding the Sun and Solar System Plasmas: Future Directions in Solar and Space Physics (2004) Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (SSB with ASEB and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate [BASC], 2004) Assessment of NASA’s Draft 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Strategy: Letter Report (2003) Assessment of NASA’s Draft 2003 Space Science Enterprise Strategy: Letter Report (2003) Satellite Observations of the Earth’s Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (SSB with ASEB and BASC, 2003) Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2003) The Sun to the Earthand Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2002) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) The Sun to Earthand Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (Board on Physics and Astronomy with SSB, 2000) Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Limited copies of these reports are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 (202) email@example.com www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html NOTE: Listed according to year of approval for release.
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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions COMMITTEE ON EXTENDING THE EFFECTIVE LIFETIMES OF EARTH OBSERVING RESEARCH MISSIONS MICHAEL H. FREILICH, Oregon State University, Chair ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR., University of Maryland CAROL ANNE CLAYSON, Florida State University WILLIAM B. GAIL, Vexcel Corporation WILLIAM C. GIBSON, Southwest Research Institute SARAH T. GILLE, University of California, San Diego ROSS N. HOFFMAN, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. BRUCE D. MARCUS, TRW, Inc. (retired) STEVEN W. RUNNING, University of Montana CARL F. SCHUELER, Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing ROBERT A. SHUCHMAN, Altarum, Inc. ROY W. SPENCER, University of Alabama WILLIAM STONEY, Mitretek Corporation JAN SVEJKOVSKY, Ocean Imaging, Inc. KURT THOME, University of Arizona JOHN R.G. TOWNSHEND, University of Maryland Staff ARTHUR CHARO, Study Director THERESA M. FISHER, Senior Program Assistant CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Assistant Editor
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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions SPACE STUDIES BOARD LENNARD A. FISK, University of Michigan, Chair GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, The Aerospace Corporation (retired), Vice Chair DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado ANA P. BARROS, Duke University RETA F. BEEBE, New Mexico State University ROGER D. BLANDFORD, Stanford University RADFORD BYERLY, JR., University of Colorado JUDITH A. CURRY, Georgia Institute of Technology JACK D. FARMER, Arizona State University JACQUELINE N. HEWITT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DONALD INGBER, Harvard Medical Center RALPH H. JACOBSON, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired) TAMARA E. JERNIGAN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles CALVIN W. LOWE, Bowie State University HARRY Y. McSWEEN, JR., University of Tennessee BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire NORMAN NEUREITER, Texas Instruments (retired) SUZANNE OPARIL, University of Alabama, Birmingham RONALD F. PROBSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DENNIS W. READEY, Colorado School of Mines ANNA-LOUISE REYSENBACH, Portland State University ROALD S. SAGDEEV, University of Maryland CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER, Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory HARVEY D. TANANBAUM, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory J. CRAIG WHEELER, University of Texas, Austin A. THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Director TAMARA L. DICKINSON, Associate Director
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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions Preface This study was commissioned in 2002 at a time when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had no formal process for the extension of Earth science missions. The original charge (Appendix A) to the Committee on Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions (see Appendix B for biographies of committee members) was to identify such a process. In August 2004, NASA merged its Earth and space sciences program offices into the Science Mission Directorate and began to prepare to apply the Senior Review process1 to Earth science missions. At that time the committee’s draft report already had recommendations that were supportive of adapting the Senior Review process for Earth science research missions. In response to the changes at NASA, the committee elected to modestly reinterpret the original charge. In its current form, this report (1) evaluates the effectiveness of the mission-extension paradigm as a means for managing mission life cycles, (2) assesses whether the Senior Review provides an appropriate foundation to implement an Earth science mission-extension process, and (3) identifies modifications to the Senior Review process that could enhance its value to Earth science missions. The committee wishes to acknowledge the work of committee member William Gail, who led the effort to streamline this report from an earlier, longer version that was partially outdated. 1 The Senior Review process is an assessment of the scientific benefits of all potential mission extensions; it weighs the science to be accomplished, the plans for operating the extended mission, and the cost. Extension proposals undergo peer review of their scientific merit and a feasibility evaluation that covers technical issues, safety, cost, and risk criteria.
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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Susan K. Avery, University of Colorado, Jack Fellows, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Lennard Fisk, University of Michigan, M. Patrick McCormick, Hampton University, and Christopher Russell, University of California, Los Angeles. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Donald M. Hunten, University of Arizona. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 3 2 EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MISSION-EXTENSION PARADIGM 4 Reasons for Mission Extension, 4 Unique Considerations for Earth Science Missions, 6 Trading Desirability Against Feasibility, 6 Use of the Mission-Extension Paradigm, 6 3 ASSESSING THE NASA SENIOR REVIEW APPROACH TO MISSION EXTENSION 8 Description of the Senior Review, 8 Assessment of the Senior Review, 8 4 ADAPTING THE SENIOR REVIEW PROCESS TO EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS 10 The Biennial Status Briefing and Two-Panel Structure, 10 Rolling-Wave Planning, 12 Benefits of the Modified Process, 12 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task, 17 B Biographies of Committee Members and Staff, 19 C Acronyms, 25
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