. "4 Trends in the Patenting and Licensing of Genomic and Protein Inventions and Their Impact on Biomedical Research." Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health
Cytokinetics (42) All others (2 or 1)
U. California (45)
Agilent Tech. (34)
U. California (12)
Bristol-Myers Squibb (20)
Dana Farber (6)
Genetics Inst. Inc. (3)
U. California (7)
Bristol-Myers Squibb (6)
Dalhousie Univ. (3)
NOTE: The assignee is the company or organization assigned ownership on the original patent. Through consolidations, mergers and acquisitions, and other transactions, ownership may change. Private organizations, foundations, and hospitals are distinguished from commercial entities by italics. Government entities are indicated by bold typeface.
TRENDS IN UNIVERSITY LICENSING OF GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC INVENTIONS
Licensing is the principal means of accessing the use of patented technology, and it occurs under terms that are infinitely varied and complex and whose effects are not straightforward. Thus, whether a patented upstream invention is available for licensing—and under what conditions—is possibly the principal determinant of whether exclusive rights can impede or alternatively, facilitate the conduct of follow-on research. Unfortunately, data on licensing are very limited for two reasons. First, unlike patents, government administrative processes generate information on only some licenses whose representativeness is unknown and for which detailed information may be lacking and not publicly available. Licenses to or by