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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health Appendixes

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health Appendix A Biographical Information of Committee and Staff Shirley M. Tilghman (Co-Chair) has served as president of Princeton University since June 2001. A world-renowned scholar in the field of molecular biology, she served on the Princeton faculty for 15 years before being named president. A native of Canada, Dr. Tilghman received her Honors B.Sc. in chemistry from Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, in 1968 and her Ph.D. in biochemistry from Temple University in Philadelphia. She came to Princeton in 1986 as the Howard A. Prior Professor of the Life Sciences. Two years later, she joined the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as an investigator. In 1998, she took on additional responsibilities as the founding director of Princeton’s multidisciplinary Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics. A member of the National Research Council’s committee that set the blueprint for the U.S. effort in the Human Genome Project, Dr. Tilghman also was one of the founding members of the National Advisory Council of the Human Genome Project Initiative for the National Institutes of Health. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Philosophical Society, and the Royal Society of London. Hon. Roderick R. McKelvie (Co-Chair) is a partner in the law firm of Covington & Burling. From March of 1992 to June of 2002, he was a United States District Court Judge for the District of Delaware. During his 10 years on the bench, Judge McKelvie handled a number of patent infringement cases and has written and spoken extensively on issues relating to intellectual property. He is a professorial lecturer in law at George Washington University School of Law and teaches a course in patent enforcement. He is currently president of the Giles Sutherland Rich American Inn of Court. He participated in the inaugural conference of the

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health STEP Board project, Intellectual Property in the Knowledge-Based Economy. He has a degree in economics from Harvard University and a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. Ashish Arora is professor of Economics and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University, with a courtesy appointment in the School of Computer Science. Professor Arora’s research centers on the economics of technological change, including topics such as intellectual property rights and technology licensing. He also has published extensively on the software, biotechnology, and chemical industries. An enduring research interest is understanding the rise and functioning of markets for technology and their consequences for strategy, industry structure, and economic development. Professor Arora co-directs the Software Industry Center at Carnegie Mellon University. He earned his doctorate in economics from Stanford University in 1992 with a dissertation titled Technology Licensing, Tacit Knowledge, and the Acquisition of Technological Capability. Helen M. Berman is Board of Governors Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Rutgers University. Her research area is structural biology and bioinformatics with a special focus on protein nucleic acid interactions. She is the founder of the Nucleic Acid Database, a repository of information about the structures of nucleic acid containing molecules, and is the co-founder and director of the Protein Data Bank, which is the international repository of the structures of biological macromolecules. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Biophysical Society, from which she received the Distinguished Service Award in 2000. She is also the past president of the American Crystallographic Association. Dr. Berman received her A.B. in 1964 from Barnard College and a Ph.D., 1967, from the University of Pittsburgh. Joyce Brinton recently retired as the director of Harvard University’s Office for Technology and Trademark Licensing, a position she had held since 1984. Before assuming this position, she spent six years in the Dean’s Office at Harvard Medical School, where she first became involved in technology transfer. Before that she was the asssistant director for Administration of a laboratory at the Medical School. She has been with Harvard University for 37 years. Her prior experience included work with a research foundation and with a pharmaceutical company. Ms. Brinton received her degree in Biology from Washington University in St. Louis. She is actively involved at the national level in developing university technology transfer policy. She is a past president of AUTM (the technology transfer professional organization) and is a recipient of its Bayh-Dole Award in recognition of her contributions to the field. Stephen Burley is the chief scientific officer of Structural GenomiX, Inc. (SGX), located in San Diego, California. SGX is an oncology-focused drug discovery

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health and development company, which currently has Troxatyl® in clinical trials and multiple protein kinase inhibitors in preclinical development, including imatinibresistant BCR-ABL. Prior to joining SGX, Burley was the Richard M. and Isabel P. Furlaud Professor and Chief Academic Officer at the Rockefeller University and a full investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and of the New York Academy of Sciences. Burley received an M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School in the joint Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology program and, as a Rhodes Scholar, received a D.Phil. in Molecular Biophysics from Oxford University. He trained in internal medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and did postdoctoral work with William N. Lipscomb at Harvard University and Gregory A. Petsko at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With William J. Rutter and others at the University of California, San Francisco, and the Rockefeller University, Burley cofounded Prospect Genomics, Inc., which was subsequently acquired by SGX. Q. Todd Dickinson is Vice President and Chief Intellectual Property Counsel, General Electric Co., where he has corporate-wide responsibility for all intellectual property and technology licensing matters. Mr. Dickinson previously served under President Clinton as Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Prior to assuming his present position, he was a partner in the law firm of Howrey Simon Arnold & White, where he was a leader of its intellectual property practice. Mr. Dickinson has experience in all aspects of intellectual property law and public policy, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. He has written and spoken extensively on intellectual property issues, and has testified before Congress, the Federal Trade Commission and the National Academy of Sciences on the impact of intellectual property law and policy. Mr. Dickinson is a member of the Board of Directors of the Intellectual Property Owners Association and the Council of the American Bar Association Intellectual Property Law Section. He is also the ABA delegate to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). In 2004 and 2005, he was named one of “The 50 Most Influential People in Intellectual Property” by Managing Intellectual Property magazine. He has also taught or lectured at various universities, including Stanford, Yale, University of California (Berkeley), MIT, Georgetown, George Washington and Tokyo University, and is a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the BNA Patent, Trademark & Copyright Journal. Mr. Dickinson earned his J.D. in 1977 from the University of Pittsburgh and his B.S. from Allegheny College in 1974. He is admitted to the bars of the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, Illinois and California, the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Rochelle Dreyfuss is the Pauline Newman Professor of Law at New York University School of Law. After spending several years as a research chemist at

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health Vanderbilt University Medical School, the Albert Einstein Medical School, and the Ciba Geigy Corporation, Dreyfuss entered Columbia University Law School, where she was Articles and Book Review Editor of the Columbia Law Review. Following her graduation in 1981, she became law clerk first to Chief Judge Wilfred Feinberg of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and later to Chief Justice Warren E. Burger of the Supreme Court. In 1983, Dreyfuss began teaching at NYU. Her research and teaching interests include intellectual property, privacy, the relationship between science and law, and civil procedure. She has authored many articles on these subjects and has co-authored casebooks on civil procedure and intellectual property law. Previously a consultant to the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal Courts Study Committee, and the Presidential Commission on Catastrophic Nuclear Accidents, she also has served on the National Academies’ Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in the Knowledge-Based Economy (chaired by Richard Levin, President, Yale University), as well as on the Science and Law and Patent Law Committees of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Professor Dreyfuss is currently a co-reporter of the American Law Institute’s Project on Intellectual Property: Principles Governing Jurisdiction, Choice of Law, and Judgments in Transnational Disputes. Her undergraduate degree is from Wellesley College. She also holds an M.S. in Chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, and is admitted to practice in New York. She has visited at the law schools of the University of Chicago, the University of Washington, and Santa Clara and has lectured all over the world. Rebecca S. Eisenberg, J.D., is Robert and Barbara Luciano Professor of Law at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where she teaches courses in patent law, trademark law, and drug regulation and runs an intellectual property workshop. She has previously taught courses in tort law, legal regulation of science, and legal issues associated with the Human Genome Project. She has written and lectured extensively about patent law as applied to biotechnology and the role of intellectual property at the public-private divide in research science, publishing in scientific and medical journals as well as in law reviews. She spent the 1999-2000 academic year as a visiting professor of law, science, and technology at Stanford Law School. She has received grants from the program on Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of the Human Genome Project of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research for her work on private appropriation and public dissemination of DNA sequence information. Professor Eisenberg has played an active role in public policy debates concerning the role of intellectual property in biomedical research. She received a Distinguished Service Award from the Berkeley Center for Law & Technology in 2002. She serves as a member of the Science, Technology, and Law Panel.

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health Charles M. Hartman (deceased) was a general partner with CW Group, a leading manager of medical venture capital funds focused on seed and early stage health care investing located in New York. Mr. Hartman is a chemistry graduate of the University of Notre Dame with an M.B.A. degree from the University of Chicago. His experience, prior to joining the CW Group, included 17 years at Johnson & Johnson. At the CW Group, his areas of specialization included genomics, pharmaceuticals, and information systems. Examples of Mr. Hartman’s earlier start-ups include Athena Neurosciences (initially went public, then was acquired by Elan Corporation) and Sugen, Inc. (initially went public then was acquired by Pharmacia), while more recent examples include Surface Logix and Plexxikon. Daniel J. Kevles, B.A. (Physics); Princeton University; Oxford University (European History); Ph.D. (History), Princeton University, is Stanley Woodward Professor of History, Yale University, and the J.O. and Juliette Koepfli Professor of the Humanities Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology. His research interests and extensive writing include the interplay of science and society past and present; the history of science in America; the history of modern physics; the history of modern biology; the Human Genome Project; and scientific fraud and misconduct. He is currently working on a book on the history of intellectual property in living organisms, a subject that he teaches in the Yale Law School. He is author of The Baltimore Case: A Trial of Politics, Science, and Character; In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity; and The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America. He is co-editor of The Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project, and a co-author of Inventing America: A History of the United States. His past service on National Academies’ committees includes (1) the Committee for “Innovations in Computing and Communications: Lessons from History”; (2) the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science (chair); (3) the Delegation to the General Assembly and 18th International Congress of History of Science, Hamburg/Munich, Germany (chair); (4) the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science (member and vice chair); (5) the National Cancer Policy Board; and (6) the Committee on Large-Scale Science and Cancer Research. David Korn is senior vice president for Biomedical and Health Sciences Research at the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) in Washington, D.C., a position he assumed in 1997. Prior to that, Dr. Korn had spent 29 years as Professor of Pathology at Stanford University, where he was chairman of the Department of Pathology from 1967 to 1984, and then University Vice President and Dean of the Medical School from 1984 to 1995. Dr. Korn is a Member

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health of the Institute of Medicine, and a Fellow of the AAAS, where he formerly served on the Council. From 1998 to 2004 he was a member of the University Grants Committee of Hong Kong, where he served as chairman of the Medical Subcommittee. Dr. Korn has been a member of the editorial boards of the American Journal of Pathology, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, and Human Pathology. He has been a member of many Societies, Councils, and Boards, and from 1984 to 1991, he was chairman of the National Cancer Advisory Board. He has written numerous scientific articles, earlier in his career in bacteriophage genetics and the biochemistry and molecular biology of DNA replication in human cells, and more recently about issues of health and science policy, topics in which he has been heavily engaged on the national scene. Dr. Korn has previously served on the National Academies’ (1) Committee on EPA Assessment Factors for Data Quality; (2) Committee on Interactions of Drugs, Biologics, and Chemicals in U.S. Military Forces; and (3) Board of Life Sciences: Clinical Research Roundtable (of which he was a founder). He currently serves on the Committee on Patenting in Human Genomics and Proteomics. Dr. Korn is a member of the Science, Technology, and Law Panel. George M. Milne, Jr., is a venture partner at Radius Ventures, where he takes an active role in selecting and guiding new investments in the biomedical arena. He is Chairman of Phylogix, Inc., and serves on the corporate boards of Mettler-Toledo, Inc., Charles River Laboratories, Inc., MedImmune, Inc., Conor Medsystems, Inc., Aspreva Pharmaceuticals, Rib-X Pharmaceuticals and Athersys, Inc. Dr. Milne is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of MedImmune, Inc. In 2002, he retired from Pfizer Inc., after 32 years, where he served as a corporate senior vice-president and as president of Central Research, with global responsibility for Human and Veterinary Medicine Research and Development from 1993 to 2000. During his tenure as president, Dr. Milne led the unprecedented growth of the Research Division as evidenced by a five-fold increase in the annual investment, a more than doubling of the scientific staff, and the creation of an external alliance portfolio with an investment of more than $228 million. Following the acquisition of Warner-Lambert, Dr. Milne assumed the role of executive vice president of Pfizer global research and development and president of strategic and operations management. Dr. Milne’s interests include the community, a diversity of intellectual pursuits and the public policy arena. He is an adjunct senior lecturer in the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences Technology. He chairs the Board of the Mystic Aquarium and the Institute for Exploration and is active on a number of other boards, including the New York Botanical Garden and the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. Dr Milne received a B.Sc. in chemistry from Yale University in 1965. He earned his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1969 and completed postdoctoral work at Stanford University. In 1975 he attended the Medical College of Virginia for postgraduate training in pharmacology.

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health Richard Scheller is the executive vice president, Research, at Genentech and an Adjunct Professor, Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. He is responsible for setting the strategy for Genentech’s research and drug discovery activities and is a member of Genentech’s Executive Committee. He is a world-renowned cell biologist and has defined the molecular mechanisms of exocytosis, particularly as it pertains to neurotransmitter release. He has also contributed to the general understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate membrane organization and transport in eukaryotic cells. He received the Alan T. Waterman Award from the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences Award in Molecular Biology. Dr. Scheller is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received his B.S. degree from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Department of Biochemistry and his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology, Division of Chemistry. Rochelle Seide is a partner in the law firm of Arent Fox PLLC. Dr. Seide has been practicing intellectual property law for nearly 20 years, primarily in the life sciences. Dr. Seide received a B.S. in bacteriology and botany from Syracuse University, an M.S. in biology (immunology) from Long Island University, a Ph.D. in Human Genetics from the City University of New York, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, and a J.D. from the University of Akron School of Law. Prior to entering the legal profession, she served on the faculty of a medical school, where she taught and carried out research in medical genetics, microbiology, and immunology. She has obtained patents in the areas of biotechnology, chemistry, and pharmaceuticals for a variety of clients. Dr. Seide also counsels clients on legal issues relating to biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents, including patent enforcement, validity, and infringement, licensing, due diligence, and business development. She has experience in transactional matters for biotechnology and pharmaceutical clients. She has litigated patent matters before the federal courts, as well as represented clients in inter parties patent interferences in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and medical device technologies. She also has served as a patent law expert in patent litigation relating to recombinant hormones, starch-based biodegradable plastics, assays for genetic polymorphisms, and treatment for bacterial sepsis. Dr. Seide is a frequent speaker and author on a variety of life sciences intellectual property issues and has also taught a seminar course on biotechnology patent law at the University of Akron School of Law. She is a member of a number of intellectual property law associations, including the American Intellectual Property Law Association, where she served as chair of the Biotechnology Committee, and the New York Intellectual Property Law Association. Recognized as an expert in her field, she is listed in the Chambers USA Guide America’s Leading Business Lawyers (2004-2005), Chambers Global The World’s Leading Lawyers (2004-2005), and the Best Lawyers in America 2005. She is admitted to the bars of Ohio, New

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health York, several U.S. District Courts, and the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and she is registered to practice before USPTO. Dr. Seide was previously a partner at Baker Botts LLP and at Brumbaugh, Graves, Donohue & Raymond. Robert H. Waterston, M.D., Ph.D., is the William H. Gates III Endowed Chair in Biomedical Sciences and chair of the Department of Genome Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle. In his role as director of the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Waterston brought whole-genome sequencing of metazoan organisms to reality. In collaboration with the Sanger Centre, he constructed a physical map and obtained the complete sequence of the first animal genome, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. His laboratory contributed to the completion of the S. cerevesiae, A. thaliana, and other genomes and was a principal partner in the Human Genome Project, constructing the clone map and contributing 20 percent of the sequence of the human genome to the effort. He also pioneered the use of the Internet for the rapid release of sequence and map information. His contributions to large-scale DNA sequencing remain central to the ongoing analysis of the human genome. He received his B.S.E. from Princeton and his M.D. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was awarded the Dan David Prize, the Gairdner Award, and the General Motors Research Foundation Sloan Award, among others. Nancy Wexler, Ph.D., is Higgins Professor of Neuropsychology in the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. She also serves as president of the Hereditary Disease Foundation, founded in 1968 by her father and dedicated to curing Huntington’s disease (HD). She received her B.A. cum laude from Radcliffe College and her Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Michigan. She served as executive director of the Congressional Commission for the Control of Huntington’s Disease and its Consequences and then worked for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Wexler has led a continuing 25-year study in Venezuela focusing on the largest family worldwide with HD. Her work was critical to the discovery of the gene for HD, localized in 1983 and isolated in 1993. She was involved in developing guidelines for delivering HD presymptomatic genetic testing. Interest in issues raised by genetic testing led her to be selected as chair of the Joint NIH/DOE Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Working Group of the National Center for Human Genome Research and co-chair of the Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Committee of the Human Genome Organization. She was a member of the first Program Advisory Committee of the National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH. Dr. Wexler has served as a member of the board of directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the Advisory Committee on Research on

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health Women’s Health, NIH. Dr. Wexler was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians; a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Section on Neuroscience; a Member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts; and Councilor, Society for Neuroscience. She is an honorary Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a Member of the Institute of Medicine. Notable awards include a Fulbright Scholarship, three honorary doctorates, the first Robert J. and Claire Pasarow Foundation Award, the Foster Elting Bennett Memorial Lecture, the J. Allyn Taylor International Prize in Medicine, and the Albert Lasker Public Service Award. Brian Wright is professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics at the University of California, Berkeley. He received a Bachelor of Agricultural Economics (First Class Honors and University Medal) from the University of New England, Armidale, Australia, and was awarded one of the two Frank Knox Fellowships given annually to Australian students by Harvard University, where he received an A.M. and a Ph.D. in economics. He then joined the Economics Department at Yale University in 1975, and moved to Berkeley in 1985. He is a fellow of the American Agricultural Economics Association. His research interests include the following: the economics of research and development, project evaluation, research incentives including patents, prizes and contractual arrangements, intellectual property rights and their licensing, the economics of conservation of genetic resources, agricultural policy, and the economics of markets for storable commodities, market stabilization, energy markets, and insurance. He publishes in economics, agricultural economics, and in scientific publications. His books include Storage and Commodity Markets (with Jeffrey Williams), Reforming Agricultural Commodity Policy (with Bruce Gardner), and Saving Seeds, with Bonwoo Koo and Philip Pardey and others. He served as the economist member of the Subcommittee on Proprietary Science and Technology of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and has advised the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute on the economics of conservation of genetic resources for the CGIAR. He has consulted for the United States Department of Justice, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Food Policy Research Institute, and has served as an expert witness in litigation regarding patent licensing and agricultural biotechnology. His work evaluating the cost of international ex situ conservation of agricultural germplasm helped establish the basis for the Global Crop Diversity Trust, which is raising $260 million for the secure and sustainable funding of global crop genetic resources for the long term. He is an advisor for an initiative on prizes for innovation in African agriculture, is involved in the development of the Biological Innovation for Open Society initiative, and has been involved directly, and through his students, in the development of the Public Intellectual Property for Agriculture initiative.

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health STAFF Stephen A. Merrill has been executive director of the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) since its formation in 1991. The STEP program addresses macroeconomic, intellectual property, technical standards, trade, taxation, human resources, and statistical as well as research and development policies affecting technology development and economic performance. Dr. Merrill has directed several STEP projects and publications, including Investing for Productivity and Prosperity (1994); Improving America’s Schools (1995); Industrial Research and Innovation Indicators (1997); U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance and Securing America’s Industrial Strength (1999); Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education (2001); and A Patent System for the 21st Century (2004). For his work on A Patent System for the 21st Century, he was named one of the 50 most influential people worldwide in the intellectual property field by Managing Intellectual Property magazine. Dr. Merrill’s association with the National Academies began in 1985, when he was principal consultant on the Academy report, Balancing the National Interest: National Security Export Controls and Global Economic Competition. In 1987 he was appointed to direct the Academies’ first government and congressional liaison office. During his tenure as executive director of Government and External Affairs, the Academies received a steadily increasing number of congressional requests for policy advice. Previously, Dr. Merrill was a fellow in International Business at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, where he specialized in technology trade issues. For seven years until 1981, he served on various congressional staffs, most recently that of the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, where he organized the first congressional hearings on international competition in biotechnology and microelectronics and was responsible for legislation on technological innovation and the allocation of intellectual property rights arising from government-sponsored research. Dr. Merrill holds degrees in political science from Columbia (B.A., summa cum laude), Oxford (M. Phil.), and Yale (M.A. and Ph.D.) From 1989 to 1996 he was an adjunct professor of international affairs at Georgetown University. Anne-Marie Mazza, B.A., Economics; M.A., History and Public Policy; Ph.D., Public Policy, The George Washington University, joined the National Academies in 1995. She has served as senior program officer with both the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy and the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. In 1999, she was named the first director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, an activity designed to foster communication and analysis among scientists, engineers, and members of the legal community. Dr. Mazza has been the study director on numerous Academies’ reports, including Intentional Human Dosing Studies for EPA Regulatory Purposes:

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health Scientific and Ethical Issues (2004); Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government (2003); The Age of Expert Testimony: Science in the Courtroom (2002); Issues for Science and Engineering Researchers in the Digital Age (2001); and Observations on the President’s Fiscal Year 2000 Federal Science and Technology Budget (1999). Between October 1999 and October 2000, she divided her time between the Academies and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where she served as a senior policy analyst responsible for issues associated with a Presidential Review Directive on the government-university research partnership. Before joining the Academies, Dr. Mazza was a senior consultant with Resource Planning Corporation. Craig Schultz has been with the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) since 1998. He has worked on several STEP projects on human resources, government-industry partnerships, research and development, and intellectual property rights. Prior to joining STEP, Mr. Schultz worked in the Office of the Vice President for Development at the University of Virginia. He holds a B.A., High Honors, from the University of Michigan and an M.A. from the University of Virginia. Stacey Speer, B.S., Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, joined the National Academies’ Science, Technology, and Law Program in September 2002 as the Christine Mirzayan Intern. Ms. Speer is now the senior program assistant of the Science, Technology, and Law Program. She is attending the George Washington University, pursuing a master’s of Forensic Science. Patricia E. Santos, M.Ed., is the program associate with the Science, Technology, and Law (STL) Panel. Before joining STL in April 2005, she worked in the Board of Higher Education and Workforce Unit at the National Academies on National Institutes of Health training assessment studies. Prior to coming to the Academies, she taught middle school math and received the Maryland State Governor’s Award for Excellence in Math, Science, and Technology instruction. Kathi E. Hanna, M.S., Ph.D., is a science and health policy consultant, writer, and editor specializing in biomedical research policy and bioethics. She served as Research Director and Senior Consultant to President Clinton’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission and as Senior Advisor to President Clinton’s Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses. More recently, she served as the lead author and editor of President Bush’s Task Force to Improve Health Care Delivery for Our Nation’s Veterans. In the 1980s and 1990s, Hanna was a senior analyst at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, contributing to numerous science policy studies requested by congressional committees on science education, research funding, biotechnology, women’s health, human genetics, bioethics, and reproductive technologies. In the past decade, she has served

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health as an analyst and editorial consultant to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, the National Academies, and to several charitable foundations, voluntary health organizations, and biotechnology companies. Before coming to Washington, D.C., she was the genetics coordinator at Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago, where she directed clinical counseling and coordinated an international research program in prenatal diagnosis. Hanna received an A.B. in biology from Lafayette College, an M.S. in human genetics from Sarah Lawrence College, and a Ph.D. from the School of Business and Public Management, George Washington University. Sara Davidson Maddox, M.A., is a science and health policy writer and editor, with extensive experience in the areas of bioethics, biomedical research, and health services and quality. She was editor for the National Bioethics Advisory Commission and has participated in projects for the National Institutes of Health and the Institute of Medicine.