John L. Butenhoff is a corporate scientist in the Medical Department of 3M. He is responsible for the toxicology and health risk assessment activities associated with legacy perfluorinated alkyl acids that were produced by 3M before 2002. Dr. Butenhoff has been an employee of 3M since 1976 and has held technical and management positions in industrial hygiene, toxicology, and corporate product responsibility. He received his AB in biology from Franklin and Marshall College and his MS in occupational health and PhD in toxicology from the University of Minnesota. He holds an adjunct faculty position in the graduate program in toxicology at the University of Minnesota through the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Duluth. Dr. Butenhoff holds professional board certifications by the American Board of Toxicology and the American Academy of Industrial Hygiene.


Richard Di Giulio is professor of environmental toxicology in the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences at Duke University. At Duke, he also serves as director of the Integrated Toxicology Program (a doctoral and postdoctoral training program), director of the Superfund Basic Research Center, and associate director of the Center for Comparative Biology of Vulnerable Populations (all are supported principally by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, NIEHS). He received a BA in comparative literature from the University of Texas at Austin (1972), an MS in wildlife biology from Louisiana State University (1978), and a PhD in environmental toxicology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (1982). His research in aquatic and comparative toxicology emphasizes mechanistic studies of chemical toxicity and adaptation, emphasizing metabolism, oxidative stress, and gene interactions. Current studies include an investigation of mechanisms of adaptation, fitness costs, and genetic consequences in a population of killifish (Fundulus) that inhabit a polluted estuary in Virginia; mechanisms by which selected chemicals perturb cardiovascular development in Fundulus; and effects of chemicals on gene expression and regulation in this model. He has organized symposia and workshops and written on the broader subject of interconnections between human health and ecologic integrity. Dr. Di Giulio serves as an adviser for the Scientific Advisory Board of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and for the Canadian Network of Toxicology Centres. He has served on the Board of Directors of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, is active in the Society of Toxicology , and is on the editorial boards of Human and Ecological Risk Assessment and Toxi-



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