overweight and obesity in adults. One exception is the incidence of type 2 diabetes in certain Native American Tribes. In general, type 2 diabetes, which appears to be on the rise, is found in less than 1 percent of the youth population. However, there have been no definitive studies to date of the U.S. population (American Diabetes Association, 2000).
Each Service has developed its own height and weight tables. The standards currently in use by each Service for new recruits and for retention after entry are shown in Table 5-2. It can be seen that for men, the Marine Corps has the most liberal screen, whereas the other three Services are at or close to the 27.5 recommended by DoD. Both the Army and the Marine Corps have a more liberal standard for male recruits than for retention after entry. Standards for female recruits are the most stringent in the Army and the Marine Corps. Retention standards for women are more stringent than new recruit standards in the Army, whereas retention standards for female Marines are more liberal than they are for new recruits. There is no rationale given for this variability.
As noted above, if a recruit exceeds the BMI screening standard, body fat measures may be taken. There are DoD-recommended body fat measures for men and women that are calculated by formulas that use height and body circumference (DoD Instruction 1308.3, “DoD Physical Fitness and Body Fat Programs Procedures”). For men, body circumference is determined by subtracting the circumference of the neck from the circumference of the abdomen; for women, the body circumference is deter-