mined by adding the waist and hip circumferences and subtracting the neck circumference. The formulas are as follows:

Men: % body fat = 86.010 × log10 (abdomen II − neck) − 70.041 × log10 (height) + 36.76

Women: % body fat = 163.205 × log10 (waist + hip − neck) − 97.684 × log10 (height) − 78.387

Table 5-3 shows the criteria for maximum body fat percentage of men for each Service. As noted in the table, the Navy and the Marine Corps use the DoD procedure described above; however, the Army uses different formulas and, for women, different measurements. The Air Force is currently using only waist circumference. The DoD-recommended standard for men is 26 percent body fat; the Services range from 18 percent (Marines) to 28 percent (Army, ages 25 to 30). For women, the DoD standard is 36 percent body fat; the Services range from 26 percent (Marines) to 33 percent (Navy).

The DoD formulas are based on those developed for the Navy by James Hodgdon in the early 1980s (Hodgdon and Friedl, 1999). As reported by these authors, these equations have been cross-validated in several research studies. Specifically, they were validated against a four-compartment model that included measures of bone mineral content (DXA) and total body water using bioelectric impedance analysis. The results of the cross-validation for men resulted in a correlation coefficient

TABLE 5-3 Criteria for Maximum Body Fat Percentage

 

 

Age

Service

Formula

17-20

21-24

25-30

DoD

% body fat = 86.010 × log10 (abdomenII circumference − neck circumference) − 70.041 × log10 (height) + 36.76

26%

26%

26%

Navy

Same as DoD

22%

22%

22%

Marine Corps

Same as DoD

18%

18%

18%

Army

% body fat = 76.46 × log (abdomen circumference − neck circumference) − 68.68 × log(height) + 46.89

24%

26%

28%

Air Force

Waist circumference



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